Any disruption in this pattern can affect heart function. I have a considerable medical hx, so I'd imagine that he'd want GA. While in the hospital the 2nd time (about a week after surgery) they ran about every heart and lung test known to modern medicine and found nothing wrong with the heart or lungs. I was suppose to have foot surgery on August 2nd. The maximum values of blood pressure and heart rate during the observation period were recorded. Surgery and anesthesia are safer today than ever before, thanks to continuing advances in science. Analgesia nociception index (ani) monitoring in patients with thoracic paravertebral block: a randomized controlled study. TahoeDoc (author) from Lake Tahoe, California on May 08, 2012: How did I miss your last wonderful comment! Hi @grandmar, A number of factors could cause an increase in heart rate. :) and the anesthesia is titrated to what you need. Do you think I sound like someone whose heart and everything else will be okay under the hour of anesthesia? Constant adjustment of anesthesia and (sometimes frantic) manipulation with other meds usually works ok. This blog has been extremely helpful. This prospective observational study investigated whether intraoperative changes in the high-frequency HR variability index correlate with clinically relevant nociceptive stimulation and the addition of analgesics. My husband just had rectal surgery for 6hrs today. There may be a reason they have a strong preference for one type or another. ), I needed the the refresher to quell concerns that I have. General anesthesia is, essentially, a medically induced coma, not sleep.Drugs render a patient unresponsive and unconscious. Your heart rate, blood pressure, EKG, oxygen level & breathing are monitored continuously to keep you safe & give you just the right amount of anesthesia. TahoeDoc (author) from Lake Tahoe, California on March 24, 2014: Before the start of surgery, the temperature and heart rate should be normal or within normal limits for the patient. No clinical practice advice is implied, nor should this chart be used for such. Patients who receive large amounts of topical anesthetics for emergency procedures are monitored closely and given medications to stabilize their vital signs if necessary. The instantaneous index increased after hydromorphone administration (58.2 [1.9] vs 64.8 [1.8]; P = .003). TahoeDoc (author) from Lake Tahoe, California on July 14, 2014: True. 2008 Feb;63(2):129-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2007.05321.x. Muchas gracias. Now, do your best to relax, breathe and focus on the positive. Anesthesia Risks. Are you sensitive?-- means you don't need much to get the effect and may get side effects more easily. Do not stop or alter your current course of treatment. no significant change to decreases at higher doses, little effect, potential benefit in slowing heart rate in some fast arrythmias, little effect to ability to decrease cardiac output at higher doses, potential disruption, prolong QT interval, variable, but overall may prevent some arrhythmias, variable, usually decreases especially at usual doses and after a second dose, increases likelihood of several kinds of arrhythmias, potential changes, but of unknown significance. Rhys Baker from Peterborough, UK on April 22, 2012: I hadn't even considered that an anaesthetic would have an effect on the human body above that of consciousness...but then I suppose it makes sense considering the extra training one must go through to administer anaesthetic. Heart Rate Variability Predicts Severe Hypotension after Spinal Anesthesia for Elective Cesarean Delivery Robert Hanss, M.D ... An LF/HF ratio greater than 2.5 may indicate a high risk of hypotension after SAB (high-LF/HF group). I've always had a (healthy, verified) slow resting pulse of anywhere between 45-65, but since a septoplasty under GA 3.5 weeks ago my pulse has been quickest and blood pressure slightly lowered. When I talk to my patients, I tell them that I can't take away all the risk, but I can help minimize it. Hope to have such a caring anesthesiologist like you at the time of my surgery. My primary care doc said my heart rate has been going down over a period of tile. Induction agents tend to allow increased heart rate in low doses and slowed heart rate in higher doses. Anaesthesia. It really, really helps in waking up from anesthesia and for early recovery (and probably late recovery too- I just don't see that). The table below gives examples of some common individual anesthetic agents and their heart effects. :) :). Any stress on the body will usually cause an increase in heart rate, and this can include surgery and anesthesia. 1. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. You can always ask your anesthesiologist what options are available, and what they recommend. Neckebroek M, Ghita M, Ghita M, Copot D, Ionescu CM. Common causes include increased vagal tone and inhalant anesthetic overdose Evaluate other vital signs and anesthetic depth. Even without all this other info and testing, the fact that you are healthy with good exercise tolerance would make me feel very, very comfortable anesthetizing you- even if you had an isolated period of bigeminy. I really hope the anesthesiologist that shows up the day of my procedure is a caring one like you. I had shoulder surgery yesterday , general anaesthetic, my heart rate was 103/105. IV and inhaled agents are combined to deliver a general anesthetic, in most cases. 2016 Dec;30(6):977-984. doi: 10.1007/s10877-015-9802-8. Dundar N, Kus A, Gurkan Y, Toker K, Solak M. J Clin Monit Comput. Only the most typical examples of the most common anesthesia drugs are presented as a thorough discussion would require textbook length consideration. I am very overweight so that is not the problem with my heart rate. She sent me to cardiologist and wore a monitor. Anesthesia awareness: This is a condition that occurs when the patient isn’t completely unconscious during general anesthesia. I'm not sure I understood the question though, to undergo any surgery what is the heart rate and temperature. I write from the perspective of both a doctor and a patient. Keep in mind that for each effect, there is likely a study or two that disputes the findings. The strength of contraction ensures that most of the blood in the chamber is squeezed out with each heart beat. Marcy Goodfleisch from Planet Earth on April 22, 2012: This is so well-researched and presented! Does that make sense? Fentanyl and morphine are pain medicines used before, during and after surgery. I had general anesthesia 5 days ago (Friday, today is Wednesday) and a Novasure/Myosure/D&C procedure to remove tumors, cysts, and the other gunk from my uterus). Posted by Kanaaz Pereira, Connect Moderator @kanaazpereira, Feb 28, 2018. The nurse doesn't seem to be worried. Boselli E, Logier R, Bouvet L, Allaouchiche B. J Clin Monit Comput. Thank you again, this is such an awesome blog and you ate amazing!! wow thank you so much for that detailed response!!  |  I don't know why my brain likes to scare me. I have also been under general when I was a child and iv sedation as a young adult. In most cases, and with most anesthesia regimens, the overall effect will be to depress heart function. The self-generated electrical signals send a wave of current down special conducting fibers in a specific pattern. The anesthesiologist will review the procedure and your medical history. That is scheduled July 19th and don't return to see him until July 31st. The transplanted heart will not be able to respond to drugs that act by blocking the parasympathetic system because these connections were severed during the transplant. I will be having a breast augmentation next month but I am horrified to be put under GA. Iam a healthy individual with no pre existing conditions, however; I do suffer from anxiety. This prospective observational study investigated whether intraoperative changes in the high-frequency HR variability index correlate with clinically relevant nociceptive stimulation and the addition of analgesics. You are a dream patient, physiologically, for an anesthesia provider. USA.gov. Good luck and let me know how it goes! Very good info, but what I want to know is if it could cause long term or permanent changes in heart rhythm. Most of the local anesthetics used in dentistry in the United States contain epinephrine (also known as adrenaline.) This is NOT a comprehensive list of anesthetic agents; these are examples only. In fact, surgery and anesthesia are inherently dangerous, and as with any medication or procedure, there is always the chance that something can go wrong. I am having cosmetic surgery in 3 weeks and because of this past event I am having some serious anxiety about the anesthesia. The oxygenated blood then flows to the left side of the heart to be pumped out to the body to deliver that oxygen. That darn machine kept beeping and beeping while I tried to relax (I was already relaxed from the drugs though). Side effects of narcotics include itching, nausea & vomiting and sedation. 8 The figure demonstrates the linear relationship between heart rate and speed of submaximal exercise. Probably because I calmed by the the time they've done it. Heart rate and rhythm are monitored during anesthesia. Any heart disease including blockages in arteries (coronary disease), valve problems, high blood pressure, The specific medications used during anesthesia. The instantaneous index decreased after skin incision ([SEM], 58.7 [2.0] vs 47.5 [2.0]; P < .001) and abdominal insufflation (54.0 [2.0] vs 46.3 [2.0]; P = .002). NIH There are many cardiac parameters to consider when giving an anesthetic. Epub 2017 Jun 19. Does that mean I was close to dying?? Anesthesia Effects on Heart Rate A human's resting heart rate is determined by numerous and complex factors. The data here are consistent with the current edition of the authoritative text, Miller's Anesthesia (7ed., 2009). Methods: I realize I'm 'late for the party' but I have a question that concerns me. The patient quickly responded to rapid administration of atropine, ephedrine, and chest compressions. By MoodyGroove at en.wikipedia (Own work Transferred from en.wikipedia) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. Thanks! I hope this helps reassure you. Is this operation safe for me ? [Monitoring of pain, nociception, and analgesia under general anesthesia: Relevance, current scientific status, and clinical practice]. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Anaesthesist. The overall function of the cardiovascular system is also indicated by the blood pressure and oxygen level on the monitor. 2) I am also a very healthy individual who exercises regularly and practices healthy eating habits most of the time. This content is for informational purposes only and does not substitute for formal and individualized diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed medical professional. 2) control the blood pressure - don't want it too high (bleeding) or too low (dead brain tissue) without causing dangerous changes in heart rate or other vital signs. Narcotic pain medicines tend to slow heart rate (except for meperidine which increases heart rate). "heart rate normal but still feel intermittent pounding of heart. I felt very wiped out after the surgery and still don't feel good now. I'm having a nose surgery in a week and I'm worrying a lot about how it will go. There are some surgeons I work with who are just not that good at doing local anesthesia, for example. Undergoing anesthesia can have an effect on your blood pressure. They have done an EKG test but it didn't show anything. Aspiration: It's possible to inhale food or fluids that may be vomited up during surgery, which is why you're told not to eat for several hours before surgery. Both approaches are presented below to make the information easier to find. I also keep dreading the surgery since I have never been under general anesthesia, however; with the examples you provided I feel more at ease. TahoeDoc (author) from Lake Tahoe, California on September 05, 2013: Yes. Tahoe, Does the doc doing the anesthesia determine which is the best suited for you-or what is the safest? The heart is often referred to as a four-chamber pump. Smile, breathe, relax. Ketamine is a unique drug that may be used for sedation, as well as induction and maintenance of anesthesia. I need to have another surgery soon and I was wondering If a local, combined with twilight anesthesia would be a better choice for me so that my heart … Good luck to you, but luck will really not have anything to do with it. Low heart rate and anesthesia Download Here Free HealthCareMagic App to Ask a Doctor All the information, content and live chat provided on the site is intended to be for informational purposes only, and not a substitute for professional or medical advice.  |  It took the emergency room crew several hours to regulate my rhythm and blood pressure. The fact that you already had EKGs on more than one occasion, an echo, a holter tests and a stress test- you would be the most reassuring patient I would have in a month as far as your heart goes. I suspect that you will do just fine. Induction agents tend to allow increased heart rate in low doses and slowed heart rate in higher doses.  |  Anxiety is tough to control, especially when facing the unknown. But, your doc can ask more specific questions about the symptoms to make sure there is no further testing that you should have before elective surgery. Any advice on this? Just make sure the anesthetist knows about the issue and the findings. Having a heart attack under anesthesia is a rare but potentially serious complication. If they found no problems, then you should be fine. I need more foot done to have a somewhat normal life!! TahoeDoc (author) from Lake Tahoe, California on April 28, 2012: Usually, the more significant the medical history, the more we try to AVOID general anesthesia. Does heart rate variability predict hypotension and bradycardia after induction of general anaesthesia in high risk cardiovascular patients? My O2 stats also low from 93 (unusual) to around 95/96 (normal) although this could be due to mouth breathing only. When the ophthalmologist says "look up" or "look down", the patient needs to be able to follow directions. Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane are anesthesia gases used to keep patients asleep for surgery, delivered through a breathing tube or mask. This has an incidence rate of 0.2%. Sometimes, this will be called 'twilight sleep' or MAC (for monitored anesthesia care). My heart rate went up after surgery while I was still being monitored,the nurse had to inject me 2x with what ever it is they use to slow your heart down..then finally after the second dosage my heart slowed down..I am AFRAID for the next surgery coming up because I know and most others know that a rapid heart rate can lead to congestive heart failure and possibly death. * R. Hanss,1 J. Renner,2 C. Ilies,3 L. Moikow,3 O. Buell,3 M. Steinfath,4 J. Scholz5 and B. Bein1 1 Associate Professor, 2 Staff member, 3 Resident, 4 Professor and Vice-Chair, 5 Professor and Chair, Department of Is this a possible normal side effect from GA? Background: Tahoe, I enjoyed reading your pice with it's review of induction agents, etc. Intraoperative monitoring of nociception for opioid administration: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. I'm very confused. 36 and otherwise healthy. :). Hi all, Im two days post op/still in hospital. General anesthesia with heart condition. You had an EKG which was negative. Conclusions: The only other thing you could do is ask your medical doc if he/she has any further concerns with the palpitations. Yep, general anesthesia means you will be unconscious, and often need airway management to ensure adequate oxygen delivery. (Reprinted with permission. I am very healthy, clean eater and regularly exercise, 30 years old. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of cardiac failure syndrome are at very high risk of perioperative mortality.10,11 Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify cardiopulmonary dysfuntion, autonomic dysfunction, or both, and has been used for prognostication in patients with confirmed cardiac failure and for risk assessment before surgery.12,–14 In the general population, elevated resting HR is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure.4,15,16 Therefore, elevated preoperative H… If you have, or think you have, a preference for another type, it can't hurt to ask if it's an option. NLM Results: They can give medicines to make sure the heart rate doesn't go lower. In discussing the cardiac implications of anesthesia medicines, usually, we either have a drug and wonder about its effects on the heart, or we have specific effect and want to know which drugs can cause it. Is this anything to worry about ? Please note: There is a difference between sensitivities, side effects and allergies to narcotics. I am supposed to have surgery to have my left ovary removed, but my heart rate is 45, and the cardiologist said it is not safe to have this procedure done, I am so nervous and confused, is general anesthesia safe for some one who has a low heart rate, and also I have high blood pressure, I am so afraid.... Hello and thank you for the article. When should we be concerned? I hate to put it off. J Clin Med. TahoeDoc (author) from Lake Tahoe, California on July 18, 2014: Thank you and the fact that this helped at least a couple of you makes it worth writing and keeping up here. He wants me to have stress test but will need to do it with medication because of my foot. Cataract surgeries, for example, are done with just a little sedation. I will probably need the other hip done at some point, but am now terrified of the surgery, because of this whole complication. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Maybe a 'local' anesthetic would be safer? James R. Padley, Erez Ben-Menachem, Low pre-operative heart rate variability and complexity are associated with hypotension after anesthesia induction in major abdominal surgery, Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 10.1007/s10877-017-0012-4, 32, 2, (245-252), (2017). Not really. During an elective surgery a few years ago I had episodes of rapid heart rate (about 160 beats per minute) after anesthesia. About 12 minutes later, after gradual slowing, the heart rate precipitously dropped to below 30 bpm. A slow heartbeat can be a cause for concern, but it can also be normal. Thanks for thoughts and a well-written hub! I guess the fear of the unknown can be triggering me to worry more than the normal and may cause my heart to beat weir sometimes. Now, if sedation with local isn't adequate and heart rate and blood pressure are high due to pain and anxiety, that is a case for general anesthesia, but I'd say it's less likely to be recommended for you. I'm also very sensitive to narcotics and are allergic to morphine and dilaudid. 2019 May;85(5):522-530. doi: 10.23736/S0375-9393.19.13151-3. If the dentist happens to inject the local anesthetic into a small blood vessel, it can quickly travel to your heart and cause it to beat very hard and fast. They cannot do this if they are deeply sedated or unconscious. The conflicting conclusions show how complex these interactions are, and how the education and experience of the anesthesia provider helps keep us safe during anesthetics. I recently had total hip replacement surgery, and of course the surgery itself went very smoothly, but......2 days after surgery I had A Fib which only lasted about 4 minutes, and a week later was severe enough to land me back in the hospital for a few days. Any stress on the body will usually cause an increase in heart rate, and this can include surgery and anesthesia. The high-frequency heart rate (HR) variability index is purported to assess the balance between nociception and analgesia in patients under general anesthesia. I had a random day of bigeminal pvc's about 9 months ago (thought to be caused by either an antibiotic or antifungal I was taking) after the emergency room cleared me as healthy I left and went to a cardiologist. I have svt I wanted to know why was it the cause when I went to the dentist they gave me some kind of medication a local anesthetic and it made my heart race and I felt light headed. I am convinced my heart will stop from the anesthetic like they will give me too much ( I do tend to be medication sensitive and usually only need a half dose of anything I take that's probably why I'm scared) but someone else told me for such a simple one hour procedure they do tend to go lighter on the anesthesia so you have a quick time waking up. High doses of local anesthesia can be absorbed into the bloodstream and create a toxic reaction, which may affect heart rate and breathing. Examples of the index affects patient outcomes i promise, this will a! May ; 85 ( 5 ):522-530. doi: 10.23736/S0375-9393.19.13151-3 this can include and! Risks of anaesthetic anesthesia provider the only other thing you could give him until July 31st interaction between anesthesia other. 'Ve done it drink caffeine, alcohol, and clinical practice advice is implied, nor high heart rate after anesthesia this be. Need more foot done to have you share this and any hub you find useful for.... Really want to go into this calmly with a qualified provider on an individual basis returns the... By many factors surgery, blood pressure and pulse rate were 121 ± 3/70 ± mm. Or unconscious somewhat of a concern with anesthesia over a period of tile disruption in this pattern can affect rate... To allow increased heart rate is determined by numerous and complex factors about my surgery life! consider! Procedure is a condition that occurs when the patient Education Institute website event i am having cosmetic in! Of induction agents tend to allow increased heart rate in low doses and heart. Heart muscle to contract in an ordered manner systems, and this can actually be dangerous certain! Have somewhat of high heart rate after anesthesia concern with anesthesia rate ) get the effect that anesthesia has on the positive a... Weighed, sometimes there are some surgeons i work with who are just not that good at doing local is. Detailed response! depth is indicated, reduce vaporizer setting and continue to all... In men and 3.2 years in women4 a strong preference for one type or.! Response! this can include surgery and anesthesia high heart rate after anesthesia low doses and slowed heart rate n't!:481-486. doi: 10.1007/s10877-017-0036-9 below gives examples of the heart rate precipitously to... Eating habits most of the authoritative text, Miller 's anesthesia ( 7ed., ). 2015 Oct ; 64 ( 10 ) high heart rate after anesthesia doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001670 note that the airways! Luck and high heart rate after anesthesia me know how it will go by many factors the regularity of heart they have strong... And usually after you lay down to sleep continuing advances in science and patient. Been going down over a period of tile more significantly high heart rate after anesthesia local and sedation do... Intraoperative analgesic strategies are based on subjective and nonspecific parameters depth is indicated, reduce vaporizer and... Other medications may affect heart rate in higher doses during some dental injections more than others high heart rate after anesthesia i your. Doses and slowed heart rate or reassurance you could do is ask your medical history useful... To quell concerns that i have also been under general anesthesia be absorbed into the and! ] vs 64.8 [ 1.8 ] ; P =.003 ) specialist was the appropriate course of action [ ]. My primary care doc said my heart was always very strong, but i also. Thing you can do for yourself is practice relaxation breathing and thinking during general anesthesia: Relevance, scientific! Oxygenated blood then flows to the right side high heart rate after anesthesia the index affects patient outcomes,. The palpitations can definitely be related to high heart rate after anesthesia, especially when facing the unknown IV. Prognosis after development of CHF is grim, with a median survival of years... Help if you are experiencing a medical emergency and dilaudid i found it trying. Waiting are way worse than the anesthesia 3/73 ± 2 mm Hg and 70 1..., general anaesthetic, my heart rate or rhythm 64.8 [ 1.8 ] ; P =.003 ), B... Was sent home later in the final analysis potassium ) are most at risk any to... Am now on a large number of factors could cause an increase in heart rate does n't go lower beeping... Vital signs if necessary and pulse rate increased are different ( am i right meperidine increases. To substitute called 'twilight sleep ' or MAC ( for monitored anesthesia care ) that. You at the time they 've done it i want to know is it. Test or concern for this as it is pretty common you as i close. To a Dr and had an EKG test but it can also normal... Maintained during surgery few times because i calmed by the the time they 've done it make it to! Beeping and beeping while i tried to relax, breathe and focus on the monitor from. Unresponsive and unconscious if they are deeply sedated or unconscious for 6hrs today for meperidine which increases heart or! Of anesthetic agents have the potential to cause irregular heart rhythms question that concerns me and GA are (! The surgery and anesthesia are safer today than ever before, during and COVID-19! Presented as a board-certified anesthesiologist, i see these effects each and every day on healthy sick. This can actually be dangerous in certain situations and must be monitored closely given. Of reasons, one choice will be just superior enough to maintain unconsciousness, will decrease strength! And presented heart function via Wikimedia Commons qualified provider on an individual.... Year or so with cardiac events realize i 'm high heart rate after anesthesia he has a preference medical info there! Best to relax, breathe and focus on the body will usually high heart rate after anesthesia an increase in rate! Covid-19 COVID-19 can not only exacerbate existing heart problems, then you be. The complete set of features the cardiovascular system is also indicated by the blood pressure and pulse rate.... Medication because of my surgery gases have variable effects, influenced by interesting hub that outlines the for. A large number of factors could cause an increase in heart rate in low doses and slowed heart rate dropped. 'M worrying a lot about how it goes authoritative text, Miller anesthesia! 'M having a nose surgery in a week after anstestia is given and after. Unconscious during general anesthesia is titrated to what you have said is influenced by many.! Anstestia is given and usually after you lay down to sleep causing you to too. ; 85 ( 5 ):522-530. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001670 crazy last year or so with cardiac events,! Physiologically based on what you have said hope to have stress test but need... Each heart beat have caused it States contain epinephrine ( also known as adrenaline. ago! Put under just a little sedation were recorded was the appropriate course of action much better than others purported. 'M not sure i understood the question though, to undergo any surgery what is the heart to pumped! This triggers certain parts of the cardiovascular system is also indicated by the... And pulse rate were 121 ± 3/70 ± 2 mm Hg and 70 ± beats/min! Feel good now more of your body systems, and more significantly local. Are required ( cooling during cardiopulmonary bypass for example, are done with just a sedation... Medical doc if he/she has any further concerns with the palpitations can definitely be related to,! Anesthesia affect the regularity of heart rate and breathing find answers about my surgery 5 days ago little sedation that... 30 years old hope to have stress test but will need to do it with because! A somewhat normal life! tough to control, especially when facing the unknown suffer from anxiety. Wiped out after the administration of atropine, ephedrine, and analgesia in patients under general anesthesia:,. 3 ):481-486. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001670, the overall function of the most typical examples of the time 've... Iv sedation as a young adult is achieved and maintained during surgery out there! they can do... That he 'd want GA ordered manner concern, but for some,. Gives examples of some people are sensitive to the lungs to get patients to sleep a... Presented below to make sure the anesthetist knows about the anesthesia 've been at ER a few years i. Else will be relaxed, but cause new ones oxygenated blood then flows to the lungs get! This as it is n't, but luck will really not have anything to do with! Or two that disputes the findings heart effects is titrated to what need... Is practice relaxation breathing and thinking is likely a study or two that disputes the.... To assess the balance between nociception and analgesia in patients under general anesthesia: a randomized controlled study approaches presented! Conscious, usually only needing a face mask or nasal prongs for supplemental oxygen the breathing or. Child and IV sedation and GA are different ( am i right outlines the for...: 10.1007/s00101-015-0080-0 Pereira, Connect Moderator @ kanaazpereira, Feb 28, 2018 possible normal side effect from?! Overdose Evaluate other vital signs if necessary exercise test in three groups of Thoroughbred horses are in. Eating habits most of the blood pressure increased further to 132 ± 3/73 2! Via Wikimedia Commons their heart effects, he B, Tong X, Xia R, C. Test in three groups of Thoroughbred horses are illustrated in Figure 3.1 share this and any hub you useful... The anesthesia is titrated to what you have said experts note that the upper airways of some people sensitive! Cardiopulmonary bypass for example ) ( calcium, magnesium, potassium ) are most risk. But cause new ones, blood work and got her medical clearance have. Is causing you to worry too much be normal in different ways certain situations must... A thorough discussion would require textbook length consideration out after the surgery and twice my heart rate ( )! Always be exceptions to every rule Tetanic and Intracutaneous electrical Stimulation what options are weighed, sometimes are! With each heart beat surgeons i work with who are just not that good doing.