The main problem with using oil for the battle fleet was that, with the exception of the United States, every major navy would have to import its oil. Oil has roughly twice the thermal content of coal. The US Navy continued to build ships that were relatively short-range and poor in heavy seas, until the Virginia class laid down in 1901–02. These more powerful vessels were known as "super-dreadnoughts". The name “dreadnought” is a reference to its larger size; it was named after a WWI-era battleship called the HMS Dreadnought. Her design had two revolutionary features: an "all-big-gun" armament scheme, with an unprecedented number of heavy-calibre guns, and steam turbine propulsion. A mixed armament necessitates separate control for each type; owing to a variety of causes the range passed to 12-inch guns is not the range that will suit the 9.2-inch or 6-inch guns, although the distance of the target is the same." In such an encounter, shells would fly on a relatively flat trajectory, and a shell would have to hit at or just about the waterline to damage the vitals of the ship. Only so much weight could be devoted to protection, without compromising speed, firepower or seakeeping. The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 imposed a limit of 35,000 tons on the displacement of capital ships. This philosophy of secondary armament was adopted by the German navy from the start; Nassau, for instance, carried twelve 150-mm (5.9 in) and sixteen 88-mm (3.45 in) guns, and subsequent German dreadnought classes followed this lead.  In May 1902, the Bureau of Construction and Repair submitted a design for the battleship with twelve 10-inch guns in twin turrets, two at the ends and four in the wings. The term "dreadnought" gradually dropped from use after World War I, especially after the Washington Naval Treaty, as virtually all remaining battleships shared dreadnought characteristics; it can also be used to describe battlecruisers, the other type of ship resulting from the dreadnought revolution. At the same time, the ships that had been laid down before were designated pre-dreadnoughts. 12-inch guns had been standard for most navies in the pre-dreadnought era and this continued in the first generation of dreadnought battleships. One, Mikasa, was given a special exemption to the Washington Treaty and was maintained as a museum and memorial ship. The Mackensen class, designed in 1914–1915, were begun but never finished.  The pre-dreadnought ships replaced the ironclad battleships of the 1870s and 1880s. In the United Kingdom: "Fisher does not seem to have expressed interest in ... the ability to hit an adversary at long range by spotting salvoes. Narbeth, submitted an alternative drawing showing an armament of twelve 12-inch guns, but the Admiralty was not prepared to accept this. This happened in three battles: the Russian tactical victory during the Battle of Port Arthur on 8–9 February 1904, the indecisive Battle of the Yellow Sea on 10 August 1904, and the decisive Japanese victory at the Battle of Tsushima on 27 May 1905. Many older ironclads were still in service.  The ironclads of the 1880s used compound engines, and by the end of the 1880s the even-more efficient triple expansion compound engine was in use. The British Neptune-class battleship staggered the wing turrets, so all ten guns could fire on the broadside, a feature also used by the German Kaiser class. Destroyers, in contrast to torpedo boats, were expected to attack as part of a general fleet engagement, so it was necessary for the secondary armament to be protected against shell splinters from heavy guns, and the blast of the main armament. , British super-dreadnoughts were joined by those built by other nations. , Dreadnoughts also carried lighter weapons. The initiative in creating the new arms race lay with the Japanese and United States navies. , Dreadnoughts developed as a move in an international battleship arms-race which had begun in the 1890s. This is like a 3D version of Rule the Waves! The specification for the new ship was a 12-inch main battery and anti-torpedo-boat guns but no intermediate calibres, and a speed of 21 kn (39 km/h) which was two or three knots faster than existing battleships. The Canopus, Formidable, Duncan and King Edward VII classes appeared in rapid succession from 1897 to 1905. , The only pre-dreadnought preserved today is the Japanese Navy's flagship at the Battle of Tsushima, Mikasa, which is now located in Yokosuka, where she has been a museum ship since 1925. Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II had advocated a fast warship armed only with heavy guns since the 1890s. , The thickest protection was reserved for the central citadel in all battleships. Most were capable of top speeds between 16 and 18 knots (21 mph; 33 km/h). Europe adopted Krupp plate within five years, and only the United States persisted in using Harvey steel into the 20th century. One solution to the problem of turret layout was to put three or even four guns in each turret. , The first German response to Dreadnought was the Nassau class, laid down in 1907, followed by the Helgoland class in 1909. Therefore, there was no need to armour the secondary gun armament, or to protect the crews from the blast effects of the main guns. Dreadnought carried 12-pounder guns; each of her twenty-two 12-pounders could fire at least 15 rounds a minute at any torpedo boat making an attack. , The course of the war illustrated the vulnerability of battleships to cheaper weapons. This was a box, with four armoured walls and an armoured roof, around the most important parts of the ship. Burning coal as fuel also produced thick black smoke which gave away the position of a fleet and interfered with visibility, signaling, and fire control.  The all-big-gun concept was revived for the 1904–1905 programme, the Lord Nelson class. The main armament was a main battery of four heavy guns, mounted in two centre-line turrets fore and aft. The first of its kind, the Royal Navy's Dreadnought, made such a strong impression on people's minds when launched in 1906 that similar battleships built subsequently were referred to generically as "dreadnoughts", and earlier battleships became known as "pre-dreadnoughts". Germany had begun building a large battlefleet in the 1890s, as part of a deliberate policy to challenge British naval supremacy. Everything after Dreadnought was simply an improvement of the original battleship... better armour, bigger guns, improved engines. , The armament of the new breed of ships was not their only crucial advantage. Not until the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 did pre-dreadnoughts engage on an equal footing. [k] Modern battleships were the crucial element of naval power in spite of their price.  And in fact, the only documented instance of one battleship successfully torpedoing another came during the Action of 27 May 1941, where the British battleship HMS Rodney claimed to have torpedoed the crippled Bismarck at close range. Built from steel, protected by case-hardened steel armour, and powered by coal-fired triple-expansion steam engines, pre-dreadnought battleships carried a main battery of very heavy guns in fully-enclosed rotating turrets supported by one or more secondary batteries of lighter weapons. It has been suggested Fisher's main focus was on the arguably even more revolutionary battlecruiser and not the battleship. Just as importantly, the Royal Sovereigns had a higher freeboard, making them unequivocally capable of the high-seas battleship role. In the Baltic Sea, action was largely limited to convoy raiding and the laying of defensive minefields. The propellant was provided in a brass cartridge, and both the breech mechanism and the mounting were suitable for rapid aiming and reloading. The first of its kind, the Royal Navy's Dreadnought, made such a strong impression on people's minds when launched in 1906 that similar battleships built subsequently were referred to generically as "dreadnoughts", and earlier battleships became known as "pre-dreadnoughts". , Turbines offered more power than reciprocating engines for the same volume of machinery. The term pre-dreadnought refers to the last type of battleship before HMS Dreadnought (1906).  Both British and American admirals concluded that they needed to engage the enemy at longer ranges. 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