[11] After suffering what appears to have been an epileptic seizure in 1578 while hunting tigers, which he regarded as a religious experience, Akbar grew disenchanted with Islam, and came to embrace a syncretistic mixture of Hinduism and Islam. [14] This system was not only expensive, but also made the army somewhat inflexible as the assumption was always the enemy would retreat into a fortress to be besieged or would engage in a set-piece decisive battle of annihilation on open ground. [14] The Indian campaign of Nader Shah of Persia culminated with the Sack of Delhi and shattered the remnants of Mughal power and prestige, as well as drastically accelerating its decline. [14] The long and costly conquest of the Deccan had badly dented the "aura of success" that surrounded Aurangzeb, and from the late 17th century onwards, the aristocracy become increasing unwilling to provide forces for the empire's wars as the prospect of being rewarded with land as a result of a successful war was seen as less and less likely. [7] He left his son an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge. [14] Aurangzeb's son, Shah Alam, repealed the religious policies of his father, and attempted to reform the administration. [14] A further problem for Aurangzeb was the army had always been based upon the land-owning aristocracy of northern India who provided the cavalry for the campaigns, and the empire had nothing equivalent to the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire. Bahadur Shah Zafar married Zeenat Mahal in 1840. who gave birth to his favorite son Mir Jawan Bakht. Bahadur Shah Zafar or Bahadur Shah II (Persian: بهادرشاه ظفر‎) (born as Mirza Abu Zafar Siraj-ud-din Muhammad) (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor. Then, for more than 100 years, Zafar faded from memory. The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, also known as Zafar, died in a British prison in Burma in 1862. [3], During the reign of Aurangzeb, the empire, as the world's largest economy, worth over 25% of global GDP, controlled nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Chittagong in the east to Kabul and Baluchistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri River basin in the south. --The near approach of the storm. Akbar Shah II. After they lost, the emperor was tried for treason, imprisoned and exiled to other territory under British control, in what is now Myanmar (Burma). The rebels killed British women and children. The vivid paintings that record a Briton's love of Delhi, How Lewis Hamilton is helping make racing environmentally friendly. 1760–1806. --The turn of the tide. .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}For more than a century the last Mughal emperor was almost forgotten - but a chance finding of his grave helped resurrect the legacy of a man revered as a Sufi saint and one of the finest poets in the Urdu language. He was the second son of and became the successor to his father, Akbar II, upon his death on 28 September 1837. Biden urges Trump to sign Covid bill into law, The casualties of viral conspiracy theories in 2020, .css-q4by3k-IconContainer{display:none;height:1em;width:1em;vertical-align:-0.125em;margin-right:0.25em;}playHow Lewis Hamilton is helping make racing environmentally friendly. That very day, his British captors buried him in an unmarked grave in a compound near the famous Shwedagon Pagoda. But in recent decades interest in his legacy has been revived. Tomb of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb: The last abode of the Mughal Emperor - See 204 traveler reviews, 82 candid photos, and great deals for Aurangabad, India, at Tripadvisor. In the same year, the East India Company was abolished in favour of direct rule of India by the British government. Post navigation. The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Timurid prince and ruler from Central Asia. He increased trade with European trading companies. Bahadur Shah Zafar was over sixty when he rises to the throne of Delhi. He died in custody on 7 November aged 87 - but his poetry lived on. Indian History Questions & Answers : Who was the last Mughal Emperor of India? Spain, Sweden and Switzerland confirm cases linked to the UK, as fears of the variant's spread grow. [7] Humayun's son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India. Their founder Babur, a Timurid prince from the Fergana Valley (in modern Uzbekistan), was a direct descendant of Timur (generally known in western nations as Tamerlane) and also affiliated with Genghis Khan through Timur's marriage to a Genghisid princess. [7] The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India. Importance of Getting Involved in College Activities. Not only the Muslim gentry, but the Maratha, Hindu, and Sikh leaders took part in ceremonial acknowledgements of the emperor as the sovereign of India.[15]. [14] Furthermore, the fact that at the conclusion of the conquest of the Deccan, Aurangzeb had very selectively rewarded some of the noble families with confiscated land in the Deccan had left those aristocrats who received no confiscated land as reward and for whom the conquest of the Deccan had cost dearly, feeling strongly disgruntled and unwilling to participate in further campaigns. Related posts . [10] He created a new ruling elite loyal to him, implemented a modern administration, and encouraged cultural developments. In a crypt beneath, Zafar's grave is strewn with rose petals and other flowers. Deposed by the British and was exiled to, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 02:06. SwapNil Raut July 29, 2016 At 11:41 pm. Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor. All the while, the British were progressively taking over the Emperor … [citation needed] The Mughal Emperor, however, continued to be the highest manifestation of sovereignty. [21], harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSpear1990 (, D'souza, Rohan "Crisis before the Fall: Some Speculations on the Decline of the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals" pages 3–30 from, Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar, List of the mothers of the Mughal Emperors, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The great Aurangzeb is everybody's least favourite Mughal – Audrey Truschke | Aeon Essays", Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mughal_emperors&oldid=995263586, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles needing additional references from April 2015, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. With the support of the Islamic orthodoxy, however, a younger son of Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb, seized the throne. After that they declined rapidly, but nominally ruled territories until the 1850s. "While Zafar was never cut out to be a heroic or revolutionary leader, he remains, like his ancestor the Emperor Akbar, an attractive symbol of Islamic civilisation at its most tolerant and pluralistic," writes Mr Dalrymple in his book. All the while, the British were progressively taking over the Emperor's power. Brexit: What are the key points of the deal? [14] Successive Mughal commanders refused to adjust their tactics and develop an appropriate counter-insurgency strategy, which led to the Mughals losing more and more ground to the Maratha. View all posts by Alex Post navigation. The last Mughal emperor, Zafar, came to the throne when the political power of the Mughals was already in steep decline. Though local people knew Zafar was buried somewhere inside the compound of the local cantonment - where he and his family members were confined - they didn't find it until 1991. News of his death took a fortnight to reach India and almost went unnoticed. Bahadur Shah, after the death of his father, was placed on the throne in 1837 when he was little over 60 years of age. Ousted from his ancestral domains in Turkistan by Sheybani Khan, the 14-year-old Prince Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions. Historians point out that thousands of soldiers from both religions came together to rebel against their British officers in support of restoring Mughal rule. Published by Alex. "A calligrapher, notable poet, Sufi pir [spiritual guide], and a man who valued the importance of Hindu-Muslim unity.". He was an ostensible Emperor, the Mughal Empire exists in name only and the power of the empir… At a time when nationalism and fundamentalism are on the rise, historians say Zafar's religious tolerance remains relevant to this day. [5] Mughal power rapidly dwindled during the 18th century and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, was deposed in 1857, with the establishment of the British Raj. [7], Akbar's son, Jahangir, "was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques. Nonetheless, Zafar?a mystic, poet, and calligrapher of great accomplishment?created a court of unparalleled brilliance, and gave rise to perhaps the greatest literary renaissance in modern Indian history. The emperor being minor, Bairam Khan worked as his regent. Tomb of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb: Last Mughal Emperor's grave - See 204 traveler reviews, 82 candid photos, and great deals for Aurangabad, India, at Tripadvisor. The Mughal emperors (or Moghul) ... Mughal power rapidly dwindled during the 18th century and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, was deposed in 1857, with the establishment of the British Raj. Read about our approach to external linking. Defeated, demoralised and humiliated, it was an inglorious end for a man whose Mughal ancestors had for 300 years ruled a vast territory including modern-day India, Pakistan, large parts of Afghanistan and Bangladesh. Video, Fur-st Family: The long history of White House pets, Coronavirus: More cases of new Covid variant found in Europe. Youth . To be fair, the Islamic Mughal empire Zafar inherited in 1837 had been in steep decline since the death of Emperor Aurangzeb — as pitiless a tyrant … Only a handful of relatives were present when Bahadur Shah Zafar II breathed his last in a shabby wooden house in Rangoon (now Yangon) in 1862. Shah Alam II. Like other Mughal emperors he's said to be a direct descendent of Mongol rulers such as Genghis Khan and Timur. At 4 p.m. on a hazy November afternoon in Rangoon, 1862, a shrouded corpse was escorted by a small group of British soldiers to an anonymous grave in a prison enclosure. As the last of the dynastic line that extended back to the sixteenth century, he had in his earlier years presided over a culturally sophisticated court, but as the British East India Company extended its control over more of India, his rule was clearly coming to an end. The Last Mughal Dynasty: he last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, also known as Zafar, died in a British prison in Burma in 1862. The last Mughal emperor, Zafar, came to the throne when the political power of the Mughals was already in steep decline. Indian soldiers rose up against their British officers in the northern city of Meerut on 10 May. [6], The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Timurid prince and ruler from Central Asia. Then the mutiny of the … Finally, Aurangzeb succeeded the throne and kept Shah Jahan under house arrest. Shah Jahan's eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh, became regent in 1658, as a result of his father's illness. Zafar is particularly remembered for his mystical work in Urdu. .css-po6dm6-ItalicText{font-style:italic;}Source: Britannica, BBC History. As an emperor, Zafar did not command an army but he became the symbolic head of a revolt which united both Muslims and Hindus. Painted by August Schoefft in 1854. Note: The Mughal Emperors practised polygamy. The Mughals were a branch of the Timurid dynasty of Turco-Mongol origin from Central Asia. This year - 2017 - is the 160th anniversary of the uprising but it is barely being marked, whether in India or elsewhere. His father, Akbar Shah II, was Muslim while his mother, Lal Bhai, was a Hindu Rajput princess. [7], During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. [7] Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, there was a succession war for the throne between Dara and Aurangzeb. mhktmbli mhktmbli 06.11.2020 History Secondary School Last mughal Emperor of Delhi 2 See answers satya2052p satya2052p Answer: The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, also known as Zafar, died in a British prison in Burma in 1862. Both sides were accused of indiscriminate killings. Babur was a direct descendant of the Timurid Emperor Tamerlane on his father's side, and the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan on his mother's side. The last Mughal king, Bahadur Shah, better known as Bahadur Shah Zafar, was born in 1775 at Delhi. Bahadur Shah II or Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal emperor of India. In the year 1719 alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne". --This day of ruin and riot. There was a fratricidal power struggle among the sons and grandsons to succeed him. [citation needed] Dara championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim religion and culture. He utilized Zafar as part of his name which means victory. When Zafar came to the throne in 1837, his rule extended only to Delhi and its surroundings. He may have lost his title and dynasty. He made settlements with the Marathas, tranquilised the Rajputs, and became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab. Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the B… At its peak the kingdom stretched to 3.2 million square kilometres, including parts of what are now India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. Bahadur Shah – II (1837-1857) – He was last among Mughal Emperors who was made premier during the 1857 Revolt. Powerful regional satraps in Deccan, Gujarat, Awadh and Bengal acted like independent … [1][2] Akbar, for instance, was half-Persian (his mother was of Persian origin), Jahangir was half-Rajput and quarter-Persian, and Shah Jahan was three-quarters Rajput. The Mughals began to rule parts of India from 1526, and by 1700 ruled most of the sub-continent. last-mughal-emperor; last-mughal-emperor. Though his rule could not compare with that of illustrious ancestors like Akbar or Aurangzeb, he became the rallying point for the failed "Indian uprising" of 1857, when soldiers from undivided India rose against the British East India Company. Nonetheless, Zafar - a mystic, poet, and calligrapher of great accomplishment - created a court of unparalleled brilliance, and gave rise to perhaps the greatest literary renaissance in Indian history. He was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name only and his authority was limited only to the walled city of Old Delhi (Shahjahanbad). --A precarious position. As the British Commissioner in charge insisted, 'No vestige should remain to distinguish where the last of the Great Moghuls rests.' His ghazals about life and love are famous and often sung or read out in Yangon's mushairas, gatherings at which Urdu poetry is recited. Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include a huge part of South Asia. [14] To control a region, the Mughals had always sought to occupy a strategic fortress in some region, which would serve as a nodal point from which the Mughal army would emerge to take on any enemy that challenged the empire. [citation needed] He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass. --An uneasy equilibrium. ... Akbar (1556-1603) succeeded his father Humayun at the young age of 13 years. He was the second son and became the successor to his father( Akbar II). He was the son of Akbar Shah from his Hindu wife Lalbai. He was the second son of Akbar Shāh II and Lāl Bāī. The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. More than the last Mughal emperor, the book belongs to the First War of Indian Independence to which he was unwittingly bound. [9], Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions, and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari river. Compared with his ancestors' grand mausoleums in India, Zafar's tomb is modest. --Blood for blood. Related. Yangon — Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal emperor of India, died on this day in 1862, aged 87, as a prisoner of British colonialists in Yangon (then Rangoon) in British-controlled Myanmar (then Burma). Babur was a direct descendant of the Timurid Emperor Tamerlane on his father's side, and the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan on his mother's side. A 1980s Indian TV serial rekindled memories, and roads bear his name in Delhi and Karachi. [7] During the reign of Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, the splendour of the Mughal court reached its peak, as exemplified by the Taj Mahal. [14] The Marathas were unable to take the Mughal fortresses via storm or formal siege as they lacked the artillery, but by constantly intercepting supply columns, they were able to starve Mughal fortresses into submission. VideoFur-st Family: The long history of White House pets, The ancient town built with 72,000 tonnes of diamonds. The dargah or shrine has become a pilgrimage site for Yangon's Muslim population. The British were blamed for mass executions of thousands of mutineers and their supporters. Nonetheless, Zafar—a mystic, poet, and calligrapher of great accomplishment—created a court of unparalleled brilliance, and gave rise to perhaps the greatest literary renaissance in modern Indian history. Zafar's religious tolerance, some suggest, also reflects his mixed parentage. Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last de jure Mughal Emperor. Workers digging for a drain came across a brick structure which turned out to be the former king's grave. [12] Akbar allowed freedom of religion at his court, and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, with strong characteristics of a ruler cult. But, have you ever heard about this Mughal emperor Aurangzeb tomb and its architecture. [7] Aurangzeb's attempts to reconquer his family's ancestral lands in Central Asia were not successful while his successful conquest of the Deccan region proved to be a Pyrrhic victory that cost the empire heavily in both blood and treasure. [15] After a crushed rebellion which he nominally led in 1857–58, the last Mughal, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was deposed by the British, who then assumed formal control of a large part of the former empire,[7] marking the start of the British Raj. He is known to have fought against the British East India Company during the Battle of Buxar and reformed the Mughal Army under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan and is thus known as one of the last effective Mughal Emperors. [citation needed] The restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun's triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from an accident shortly afterwards. The revolt united thousands of Hindu and Muslim troops who chose then-Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, as their nominal head. A long chandelier hangs above, while paintings of him hang on the walls. But for his subjects, he always remained Badshah - the King. Besides their wives, they also had a number of concubines in their harem, who produced children. He was also a Urdu poet, and wrote many Urdu ghazals. [13] but after his death in 1707, "many parts of the empire were in open revolt". What happens to your body in extreme heat? Zafar's unassuming tomb in a quiet avenue in Yangon is a poignant and silent reminder of one of the most tumultuous periods of Indian history. The great Mughal empire had lost much of its influence and territory by the end of the 1700s. Nov 19,2020 - who is the last mughal emperor | EduRev SAT Question is disucussed on EduRev Study Group by 153 SAT Students. Hemu,... Read more. The pen name he used, Zafar, means victory. The Last Mughal Synopsis . Akbar returns from war to be greeted by Jahangir and other sons in 1573. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed. Bahadur Shah, after the death of his father, was placed on the throne in 1837 when he was little over 60 years of age. With his death, one of the world's greatest dynasties came to an end. However, in reality, Aurangzeb Alamgir was the last Mughal emperor in the truest sense of the term. Banned from using pen or paper, he is said to have written in charcoal on the walls that confined him. Bahadur Shah II, last Mughal Emperor of India (1838-1857). "They come to meditate and pray near his grave. During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire gained political strength once more, and it became the world's largest economy, over a quarter of the world GDP, but his establishment of Sharia caused huge controversies. Bahādur Shāh II, also called Bahādur Shāh Ẓafar, (born October 24, 1775, Delhi, India—died November 7, 1862, Rangoon [now Yangon], Myanmar), the last Mughal emperor of India (reigned 1837–57). Last Mughal Emperor. Consolidation of power by the Nawab of Bengal-Bihar-Odisha. [8] The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven into exile in Persia by rebels. 1806–1837. The last Mughal emperor, Zafar, came to the throne when the political power of the Mughals was already in steep decline. The Mughal emperors (or Moghul) built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. When people's wishes are fulfilled they donate money and other things.". The ground floor houses the graves of one of his wives, Zinat Mahal, and his grand-daughter, Raunaq Zamani. .css-orcmk8-HeadlineContainer{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-pack:justify;-webkit-justify-content:space-between;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;}Coronavirus: More cases of new Covid variant found in Europe.css-1dedj2h-Rank{-webkit-align-self:center;-ms-flex-item-align:center;align-self:center;color:#B80000;margin-left:3.125rem;}1, Brexit: What are the key points of the deal?2, Covid: Biden urges Trump to sign coronavirus bill into law3, Chinese economy to overtake US 'by 2028' due to Covid4, Pompeii: Ancient 'fast food' counter to open to the public5, George Blake: Soviet Cold War spy and former MI6 officer dies in Russia6, 737 Max: Air Canada flight in unscheduled landing after engine issue7, Berlin shooting: Several injured in Kreuzberg8, Brexit trade deal 'moment of national renewal', says Lord Frost10. After his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British tried and then exiled him from Delhi and … Resentment had grown over attempts to impose new reforms, laws, Western values and Christianity. Mughal Empire . The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Timurid prince and ruler from Central Asia. Prev How To Monitor Someone S Browsing History. Youth . [7] The Indian historian Abraham Eraly wrote that foreigners were often impressed by the fabulous wealth of the Mughal court, but the glittering court hid darker realities, namely that about a quarter of the empire's gross national product was owned by 655 families while the bulk of India's 120 million people lived in appalling poverty. Bahadur Shah was the last mughal emperor of India. It was later renovated with the help of public donations. He turned into the successor to his dad, Akbar II with his demise on 28 September 1837. There is a mosque next door. Mughal forces defeated by the Marathas at the. An arched iron-grill bears his name and title. He was the son of Akbar Shah from his Hindu wife Lalbai. Biography of aurangzeb emperor mughal india biography of aurangzeb emperor mughal india zafar last mughal emperor s descendant offers golden brick for ram mandir newsbytes babur the founder of empire which ruled india for over 300 years education today news. The cost of maintaining the court, however, began to exceed the revenue coming in.[7]. --Believers and infidels. VideoHow Lewis Hamilton is helping make racing environmentally friendly, 'The year city-dwellers needed my photos of country life', Why a government forcibly cremated this Muslim baby, Somalia's Christmas birthdays and lost memories, playFur-st Family: The long history of White House pets. Dhaka renamed a park after him. Many of the later Mughal emperors had significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances as emperors were born to Rajput and Persian princesses. [7] Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing West Asian cultural influence in the Mughal court. Babur's forces occupied much … Aurangzeb died in 1707 and the Mughal empire imploded practically overnight. He ruled between 28th September 1837 to 14th September 1857. In the next decades, the Afghans, Sikhs, and Marathas battled against each other and the Mughals, only to prove the fragmented state of the empire. Obviously, everyone thinks about its magnificent architecture and mammoth size, right! The rebellion spread to Delhi, Agra, Lucknow and Kanpur. When, in … Titular figurehead under British protection. .css-1xgx53b-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-1xgx53b-Link:hover,.css-1xgx53b-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. The last Mughal king, Bahadur Shah, better known as Bahadur Shah Zafar, was born in 1775 at Delhi. "However, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds. --The sword of the Lord of Fury. "Zafar was a remarkable man," historian William Dalrymple, author of The Last Mughal, told the BBC. [7] Babur's forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526. [7] Ousted from his ancestral domains in Turkistan by Sheybani Khan, the 14-year-old Prince Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions. Video, How Lewis Hamilton is helping make racing environmentally friendly, Fur-st Family: The long history of White House pets. A few of the poems attributed to him have been reproduced in the mausoleum. October 4, 2020 October 4, 2020 Rahul Singh Thakur. Covid: Biden urges Trump to sign coronavirus bill into law, Chinese economy to overtake US 'by 2028' due to Covid, Pompeii: Ancient 'fast food' counter to open to the public, George Blake: Soviet Cold War spy and former MI6 officer dies in Russia, 737 Max: Air Canada flight in unscheduled landing after engine issue, Berlin shooting: Several injured in Kreuzberg, Brexit trade deal 'moment of national renewal', says Lord Frost, BBC History: British India and the 'Great Rebellion'. The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline, and ultimately had to seek the protection of outside powers. Many of the empire's elites now sought to control their own affairs, and broke away to form independent kingdoms. "People from all walks of life come to the dargah because he's considered a Sufi saint," says Al-Haj U Aye Lwin, treasurer of the management board of the Bahadur Shah Zafar Mausoleum. This makes it difficult to identify all the offspring of each emperor. [14] The Hindu Marathas were expert horsemen who refused to engage in set-piece battles, but rather engaged in campaigns of guerrilla warfare, a war of raids, ambushes and attacks upon the Mughal supply lines. The last Mughal emperor, Zafar, came to the throne when the political power of the Mughals was already in steep decline. Mughal warfare had always been based upon heavy artillery for sieges, heavy cavalry for offensive operations and light cavalry for skirmishing and raids. But he succeeded in conquering hearts and lives on as a Sufi saint and mystical poet. [4], Its population at the time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million (a quarter of the world's population), over a territory of more than 4 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles). To the First war of Indian Independence to which he was the last Mughal emperor of,! 14Th September 1857 Study Group by 153 SAT Students Zafar II, was born in 1775 Delhi... 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