He dressed very simply, never touched alcohol and did not keep more than four wives at a time. The defence of the north-western frontier was neglected and the material resources of the empire dwindled till they ceased to suffice for its need.”. He appointed a new class of officers called Muhtasibs who were assigned the duty to observe that the Muslims practised their religion properly. He forced the best fighting communities among them, i.e., the Rajputs, the Jats, the Sikhs, the Marathas to challenge the Mughul empire. He stopped engraving Kalma on the coins, celebration of festival of Naurauj, practices of Jharokha Darshan and Tula Dan and turned out astrologers, musicians and dancers from the court. To some extent, the religious and Deccan policies of Aurangazeb contributed to its decline. 2. received patronage at his court. The Jats succeeded in establishing the independent state of Bharatpur after the death of Aurangzeb. But his policy was also tolerant. Indeed, he set himself the vain task of becoming ‘Alamgir’ or ‘world grasper’ and was content to be ‘Zinda Pir’ or ‘living saint’ to his orthodox Muslim contemporaries. Those people whose yearly income was less than 200 Dirhams had to pay twelve Dirhams yearly to the state; those whose yearly income was between 200-10,000 Dirhams had to pay twenty-four Dirhams yearly; and those whose yearly income was more than 10,000 Dirhams had to pay forty-eight Dirhams yearly. Mostly, Jahangir maintained the spirit of religious toleration towards all his subjects and no change was brought about by him in the policy of Akbar. He further writes- “Had the Hindu pandits and princes been broad-minded enough to accept him as a member of our faith and had they made an attempt to rid Hinduism of idolatry and our society of caste-system, Akbar would probably have embraced Hinduism.” Contrary to this view, Dr S.R. Aurangzeb meant no harm to the Hindus. Because of its influence Akbar started respecting Sun and fire. The grand currents of the reformation compare favourably with the staging up of a new life in India. If he did not get success in creating a nation, it was because he could not hurry the march of events. His reversal of Akbar’s policy of religious toleration resulted in weakening the entire structure of the Mughal empire. He stopped the practice of Sizda (saluting the emperor by lying down on the earth), disallowed the Hindus to keep Muslim slaves, imposed pilgrim-tax on the Hindus though removed it afterwards very shortly, and stopped celebration of Hindu festivals at the court. Aurangzeb got support from the reactionary forces of Islam while the Rajputs opposed him and favoured Dara Shukoh. Kabul and Qandhar were the twin gateways of India’s trade with Central Asia. Srivastava has opined, “Akbar had left Islam . From the discussion above given, it is clear that the Mughals succeeded in maintaining a controlled frontier in the north-west, based on the Hindukush, on the one side, and the Kabul-Ghazni line, on the other. — Rajput policy. He punished the Hindus of Rajauri in the state of Kashmir because they used to marry Muslim girls and convert them to Hinduism. Therefore, he could not get the services of talented persons from among them also. From his point of view, the greatest fault of Akbar was that he neither observed strictly the principles of Islam nor tried to establish the supremacy of Islam in India. Besides, various temptations were also offered to the Hindus to embrace Islam. — … Fire was kept burning for twenty-four hours in his palace. his attitude towards his new subjects in this country was not as bad as that of most of the rulers of the Sultanate period.” Dr S.R. This article throws light on the Mughal era in India like Economic & Social Life, Agriculture, Trade Growth, etc. Khan-i-Khanan offered a compromise toMalik Amber and after suffering two successive defeats, at the hands of Khan-i-Khanan finally agreed. However, Shah Jahan did not pursue the policy of religious persecution. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! One reason of punishing the Sikh Guru, Arjun was certainly the religious views of the Guru which he disliked. It is worth remembering that at a time when Europe was plunged into strife of warring sects, when Roman Catholics were burning Protestants at the stake, and Protestants were executing Roman Catholics, Akbar guaranteed peace not only to ‘warring sects’ but to different religions. In 1575 A.D., he constructed Ibadat Khana (House of worship) at Fatehpur Sikri in which regular discussions were held on Thursday evenings. Unlike Aurangzeb, among all Mughal emperors Akbar implemented the most liberal religious policy. We ought, therefore, to bring them all into one, but in such fashion that they should be one and with the great advantage of not losing what is good in any one religion, while gaining whatever is better in another. They were authorized to punish guilty ones. 22. He attempted to befriend them so as to convert them as loyal servants of the throne. Now who was a good Muslim one who thought of breaking temples, imposing the Jizya and carrying on war on people of other faiths, or one who thought of uniting people of different faiths in one fraternity? Various factors were responsible for the liberal views and policy of religious toleration of Akbar. 6. Temples in Banaras, Allahabad, Gujarat and Kashmir were broken during his reign. 3. He was inclined towards Sufism also. Indirectly, it induced long conflict between the Mughuls against the Rajputs and the Marathas. The Deccan kingdoms were defeated leading to a second Mughal siege of Ahmadnagar. He was very much particular about his daily prayers and fast of Ramzan. The majority of his subjects welcomed his policy and Akbar received loyalty from them. Also, his Deccan policy was a … Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors | Indian History. They propagated against him and charged that Akbar had left Islam. Sarkar has also commented: “In Hindustan the administration rapidly deteriorated, peace, prosperity and the arts decreased, and the entire Indian civilisation fell backwards. He argues that as Akbar did not believe in the five fundamentals of Islam, namely, faith in Kalma, five daily prayers, fast of Ramzan, Zakat and Haj, had accepted many Hindu practices and believed in theories of Karma and transmigration of soul of Hinduism, he cannot be regarded a Muslim. Yet, it cannot be denied that the primary cause of the orthodox religious policy of Aurangzeb was his own religious bigotry. Even Shias and Sufis were punished during the reign of Aurangzeb. were also invited at the court. This Mahzar has been described by historians like V.A. In fact, Din-i-Ilahi was not a religious order. Bartoli described it as the result of “Akbar’s Astute and Knavish Policy.”. nature of the contemporary writings on religion; observations of some historians on the religious policy of the Mughal Emperors; att~tude of the Mughal Emperors towards religlon, and; influence of the Emperor's religious faith on his state policy. The same way, Christian missionaries expected that Akbar, probably, would accept Christian­ity. Aurangzeb lost the loyalty of the Hindus by reversing the policy of Akbar and followed by his father and grandfather. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 4 times. All Hindu kings, Brahmanas and even the poor Hindus were asked to pay it which had no precedent. His father was Sunni while his mother and his protector, Bairam Khan were Shias. Akbar appointed a separate officer called Mir Haj to look after the amenities of the Haj Pilgrims. These conflicts were: (i) Conflict with the Jats Aurangzeb began his reign with religious bigotry. The view is logical. Therefore, his period of rule cannot be regarded as the period of religious intolerance though this is quite clear that, certainly, his policy had inclined towards bigotry as compared to the policy of his father and grandfather. Directly, it was responsible for the revolts of the Jats, the Satnamis, the Sikhs and some others in Bundelkhand, Doab etc. Drinking was prohibited. The Mughal ding class was multi-racial, multi-religious and multi-regional. Religious policy of the Mughul emperors, from Babur to Aurangzeb, has provided an ideal for the ruling class of India, viz., the ruling class of India should pursue a policy of religious toleration and equality. The Mughals also used their diplomatic foreign policy to promote India's commercial interests. Thus, it is clear that he set aside the policy of religious toleration of Akbar and believed in the supremacy of Islam. So far this right was enjoyed by Sadr- us-Sadur who was an officer of the Emperor. Hindu scholars, Purshottam and Devi constantly gave him discourses on Hinduism. He oppressed them from the very beginning of his reign and became still more severe with them after the death of Raja Jai Singh, Raja Raghunath (Diwan) and Raja Jaswant Singh respectively. He, of course, tried to check certain social practices i.e., allowed Hindu widows to remarry, stopped forcible sati and marriage among close relatives, fixed marriageable age for boys as sixteen and for the girls as fourteen, tried to check consumption of liquor and provided separate dwelling-places to prostitutes in cities. When we answer this question we have to remember that while the policy of Akbar strengthened the empire, the policy of Aurangzeb weakened it. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Aurangzeb was intolerant towards the Shias, Bohras and other Muslim sects as well. The same way, he got a cow killed after his conquest of the fort of Kangra, threw away the idol of Varaha at Ajmer into a pond and closed Christian churches when he was at war with the Portuguese. Sharma has expressed: “Sher Shah was only a product of his own age as far as his religious policy was concerned. Aurangzeb failed not only in his objective, he also ruined his empire. Akbar has been criticized bitterly by some historians on account of establishing the Din-i-Ilahi. Sharma says that “Akbar remained the follower of Islam till his death.” He argues that when prince Salim revolted against his father he could not charge him of blasphemy. In that way honour would be rendered to God, peace would be given to the people and security to the Empire.” Akbar attempted to achieve this aim right from the beginning of his reign. Jain scholars like Hira Vijay Suri, Jinchandra Suri, Vijaysen, Shantichandra etc. Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb Mosques were raised at the sites of temples or building material and even the broken images of Hindu gods and goddesses were used for the construction of mosques or their stairs. Therefore, Akbar grew up in liberal surroundings which affected his personal views. Tripathi is even more inclined in his favour. Yet, the revolt could not be subdued. When there was a war against the Portuguese, churches at Agra were destroyed. The Hindus of Rajauri and Bhimbar who had married Muslim girls were forced to leave them and all such girls were returned to their parents. The Maratha-war of independence broke the backbone of the power of Aurangzeb and he died when his failure had become quite visible to him. Yet, he remained a Muslim, rather, a good Muslim throughout his life. Rajputs became his relatives. The Mughals also used their diplomatic foreign policy to promote India’s commercial interests. In the beginning of his reign, therefore, he abolished slave- trade in 1562 A.D., pilgrim-tax from the Hindus in 1563 A.D. and the Jizya in 1564 A.D. Akbar was keen to know the truth of religion. D, ASM, TTE), Food Sub Inspector, WB Police, … He believed that the greatest mistake which the Mughul rulers, prior to him, had committed was that they did not try to establish the supremacy of Islam. The sacrifice of these simply meant that the Emperor was the sole arbiter of making use of the thing that was surrendered to him. The first revolt was organised by Gokul Jat near Mathura. Thus, the majority of historians accept that Babur was not a bigot though he was true to his faith. Aurangzeb ascended the throne at the matured age of nearly forty years. He was killed and so was the fate of their next leader Raja Ram. Therefore, the theory of kingship of Aurangzeb was Islamic theory of kingship. “. Thus, by coming in contact with scholars of all religions, Akbar realised that there was truth in every religion. The responsibility of its failure went to reactionary attitude of the people of that age. In the seventh year of his reign, Shah Jahan had ordered that those Hindus who would embrace Islam would get their share from the property of their father immediately. Aurangzeb completely reversed the religious policy of Akbar. Haj Pilgrims received subsidies from the Government. In no way Akbar felt displeased with Raja Bhagwan Das and Raja Man Singh who had refused to become its members. Pringle Kennedy observes- “What Akbar had gained, what Jahangir and Shah Jahan with all their vices had retained, he (Aurangzeb) lost, viz., the affection of his Hindu subjects. No social distinction was to be observed among the people on the basis of differences of their religion and everybody was allowed to practise his social traditions and personal values. However, there are certain instances which prove that, at times, Jahangir favoured Islam. The main policy shift or even presence of a religious policy starts with the reign of Akbar, flows into the reign of Jahangir and Shah Jahan and severely modifies up in the reign of Aurangzeb. He even gave Jagirs to temples. They have formed this opinion because of the writings of the historian Badayuni and certain contemporary Christian mission­aries. It resulted in the beginning of the disruption of the empire. India experienced an awakening that quickened her progress and vitalized her national life. He was impressed by their loyalty and chivalry. He says that in fact it was Babur who started the policy of religious tolerance in India and emphasized on cultural integration through the administration. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Maharashtra regained its independence. No part of this website contents may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Sansar Lochan, NCERT और NIOS की किताबों को खरीदें या उन्हें PDF के रूप में डाउनलोड करने के लिए क्लिक करें >, Deccan policy under Akbar - Short Notes for UPSC. At this state of weakness, taking advantage of the situation Akbar decided to attack Ahmadnagar in 1596 under the leadership of Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan.Abu’l Fazl explains this attack in the context of how all of Hindustan must be brought under the liberal and benevolent rule of Akbar. Shah Jahan permitted repairs of the temple of Chintamani at Ahmedabad and prohibited cow-slaughter in Cambay at the request of its citizens. But, again, these instances are examples when he was fighting against the Hindus. “Among the rulers of India he occupies a very high place. Babur was a Sunni Muslim. Aurangzeb killed the Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur in prison. According to Satish Chandra, it has been assumed that Akbar’s objective in the Deccan was to assert Mughal suzerainty over the entire area and if possible to conquer the states there, beginning with Ahmadnagar. It would be wrong to conclude that there were political and economic motives for these acts of Aurangzeb. The Mughals and Bijapur began to interfere and manipulate the politics. To put into practice, he formed the following regulations: 1. Religious policy of Mughals _____ Unacademy Plus subscription - https://bit.ly/2knJspM Referral Code for 10 % discount and free courses - ANUJHISTORY ... UPSC PRE 2019- … . Dr A.L. Kabul and Qandhar were the twin gateways of India's trade with Central Asia. He further writes- “His (Akbar’s) problem was how he could bring together into one fold people who believed in his philosophy of Suleh Kul (peace with all), and his answer was Din-i-Ilahi.” Abul Fazl became the chief priest of this organisation. (vi) They were expected to try for salvation by leaving worldly desires, and observing good conduct and purity. But when they failed in their efforts they tried to prove that he was a hypocrite and a non-believer in Islam with a view to defame him. 21. were free from this tax. at the court. Babur and Humayun had no time to pursue a clear-cut religious policy. Balaghat which had been claimed by the Mughals earlier was also added to the Empire. He did not practise principles of Islam strictly. Chand Bibi put up a strong resistance but realized the futility of this and negotiated a peace settlement. The Hindus were disallowed to repair their temples and in 1669 A.D., provincial governors and Muhtasibs were ordered to destroy all temples and schools of the Hindus. The member of this order observed certain following rules: (i) They saluted each other with the words Allah-o-Akbar and Jall-e-Jalal- e-Hu. The labourers had to pay this tax only when they earned more than what they spent on their family expenses. Yet, his aim was not religious but political. (iii) They were expected to give a party on their birthday and to practise charity. When Aurangzeb died and war of succession ensued among his sons, Bahadur Shah, one among them sought the help of the Guru. He used to remember God, came in contact with saints and went on pilgrimage to Ajmer several times at the mausoleum of Sufi saint Shaikh Muin-ud-din Chishti. Polity Bharat Ka Samvidhan: Ek Parichaya: Ek Parichaya (Hindi), Sansar डेली करंट अफेयर्स, 30 November 2020 - Sansar Lochan, Life of Basava and Shakti Vishishtadvaita Philosophy, Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire, Reforms of Alauddin Khilji : Administrative, Military, Revenue & Economic, Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization : Salient Features, Lord Curzon : Reforms and the administrative measures, Lord Ripon (1880-1884) – A well-meaning Governor-General, Itolizumab (rDNA origin) – A Monoclonal Antibody | UPSC, Know about Hagia Sophia Controversy | UPSC, Administration of Lord Lytton (1876-1880). . Din-i-Ilahi, of course, failed but Akbar was not responsible for it. UPSC History The Mughal Empire Question Bank ... which Mughal emperor introduced the policy of Sulah-i-Kul? Therefore, it would be wrong to conclude that by taking over the right of one of his own officers to himself, Akbar had desired to become Pope or the religious head. Dr K.S. Theoretically it was the creation of the Emperor. In times of peace, he adopted no such measure. Now, who was a better emperor? Babur and Humayun had no time to pursue a clear-cut religious policy. To fulfill this object, he imprisoned his father, killed his brothers, forced his son Akbar to lead the life of a fugitive and the Rajputs, the Sikhs, the Jats and the Marathas to revolt, destroyed the Shia states of Bijapur and Golkunda and imposed all sorts of economic, social, and religious liabilities on the majority of his subjects, i.e., the Hindus with a view to force them to accept Islam. On the contrary, according to Abul Fazl, he was hesitant to accept new members within the order. He asked his Hindu soldiers and officers also to pay Jizya. The religious policy of Aurangzeb brought out serious consequences. Some Sanskrit texts were translated into Persian under the patronage of prince Dara Shukoh. The Hindus were not burdened by additional taxation and received services in the state according to merit. Rather, he utilised the entire machinery of the state to fulfill this aim. He became very liberal while he was quite young and even felt the necessity of acquiring spiritual knowledge. Shah Jahan respected Hindu scholars. The Ibadat Khana was opened for all religious leaders in the later period. Srivastava contends that the majority of contemporary historians described that the policy of Aurangzeb was that of intolerance. But Aurangzeb was a bigot. In the realm of art the Persian and Indian styles of architecture mingled happily and its excellence was exhibited in the magnificent buildings of Akbar and Shahjahan. 1B, Second Floor,Pusa Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 (Beside Karol Bagh Metro Station Gate No. Hindu religious fairs were outlawed in 1668, and an edict of the following year prohibited construction of Hindu temples as well as the repair of old ones. . Therefore, mostly it is accepted that he did not engage himself in religious persecution. They were promised money, high offices, and freedom from punishment in case they agreed to accept Islam. Privacy Policy3. He believed in the unity of God. He declared Jihad against Puran Mal of Raisin and butchered the Rajputs by treachery. His zeal to support Islam slowly slackened and most of his regulations were not enforced during later period of his rule. The religious policy of Akbar has been criticised by historians like V.A. Yet, Guru Govind Singh continued fighting against the Mughuls. Like Feroz Shah before him, he combined administrative zeal with religious intolerance. Among the Hindu nobles Raja Birbal became a member of this order while Raja Bhagwan Das and Raja Man Singh refused it. These revolts and wars, during the reign of Aurangzeb, destroyed the peace, unity, prosperity and military power of the Empire. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download also contains related Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) which will be beneficial for all Competitive Exams like WBCS (Preli & Mains), UPSC, SSC, Rail (Gr. … He created a separate department to enforce moral codes under a high-powered officer called Muhtasib. The DÄ«n-i-IlāhÄ« (Persian: دين إله ‎, lit. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century. From the discussion above given, it is clear that the Mughals succeeded in maintaining a controlled frontier in the north-west, based on the Hindukush, on the one side, and the Kabul-Ghazni line, on the other. The Hindus were given state services on merit. (vii) They were expected to sacrifice property, life, honour and religion in the service of the emperor. He participated in weakening the Mughul empire. — Court patronage of art and technology. — Evolution of religious and social outlook. When Jaswant Singh died in 1678 A.D., Aurangzeb occupied Marwar. Akbar was certainly influenced by that spirit of his age. These conflicting forces took sides of princes, opposed to each other, in the war of succession. He was one of those persons who having faith in the righteousness of their conscience completely ignore the viewpoint of others and attempt to convert them to their ideals however defective these may be. Certainly Babur exhibited intolerance in India on several occasions. With glorious ideals, it inspired the Hindu and Muslim alike and they forgot for a time the trivialities of their creed. Source: The Hindu. The causes for the downfall of the Mughal Empire were varied. The man who desired to become the member of this order could meet the Emperor on any Sunday and place his turban at his feet. Causes of The First War of Indian Independence – 1857 Revolt, Brief Note on First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782), Major significance of the Permanent Settlement of 1793, Most important aspects of Non-cooperation movement, State of non- agricultural production and internal commerce during Mughal period, मध्यकालीन इतिहास के लिए :–मध्यकालीन भारत: रणनीति, समाज और संस्कृति, प्राचीन एवं पूर्व मध्यकालीन भारतीय इतिहास, Lucent’S Samanya Vigyan (General Science In Hindi), भारत की राजव्यवस्था – By M. Laxmi Kanth. 30.1 INTRODUCTION. But the Marathas fought back to gain the independence of their kingdom. By coming in their contact, Akbar developed faith in the Hindu principles of Karma and transmigration of soul. So Manifest aims to convert this aspiration into reality and give sufficient content for this … Probably, during the course of wars, vacant mosques were used as resting places by the soldiers but it did not mean that mosques were converted into stables for horses. It was the logical result of the declaration of Khutba in 1579 A.D. Dr K.S. Rajput policy; Evolution of religious and social outlook, the theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy; Court patronage of art and technology; Also Read : UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus 2021: An In-depth Explanation of UPSC IAS Syllabus. Akbar, of course, did not follow principles of Islam strictly, yet he never felt the necessity of accepting any other religion. Therefore, the logical conclusion should be that Akbar was certainly a successful ruler. And no power that has not acquired the confidence of the Hindu community can be expected to last in India.”. The Mughal Deccan policy started from Akbar’s period as Babur and Humayun were only concerned with the consolidation of North India which was a logical step.Akbar’s movements into the Deccan began in 1591 as he sent diplomatic missions to the Deccan states asking them to accept nominal sovereignty of the Mughal state which they refused. 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