Thus, they extract more nutrition out of smaller quantities of feed. Mold and spoilage reduce nutritional value and may cause illness in animals. Amount must be monitored so that animals do not get too fat or too thin. If it rains while the hay is drying, turning the windrow can also allow it to dry faster. A tedder (also called hay tedder) is a machine used in haymaking.It is used after cutting and before windrowing, and uses moving forks to aerate or "wuffle" the hay and thus speed up the process of hay-making.The use of a tedder allows the hay to dry ("cure") better, … The rounded shape and tighter compaction of small (and large) round bales makes them less susceptible to spoilage, as the water is less likely to penetrate into the bale. Corrections? [25] In other areas, hay is stacked loose, built around a central pole, a tree, or within an area of three or four poles to add stability to the stack. Therefore, some fields were "shut up" for hay. Mowers consist of a long, flat steel cutter bar, with fingers pointing forward, and a thin steel reciprocating knife section with triangular steel blades riveted on. The proper amount of hay and the type of hay required varies somewhat between different species. Information about all of this can be found on our free downloadable factsheets at the bottom of this page. Some animals, especially those being raised for meat, may be given enough hay that they simply are able to eat all day. Hay cutting machines can be used for both grasses and legumes. Hay cubers, developed in the mid-1960s, pick up the cut hay from windrows and compress it into cubes that are easily shoveled; they are practical in regions in which the climate permits cut forage to dry to the desired moisture content. Turning hay, when needed, originally was done by hand with a fork or rake. This type of machinery will either have rubber rolls or steels rolls which pressure the hay and crimp the hay stems, leading to cuts without any trouble. [21] In very damp climates, it is a legitimate alternative to drying hay completely and when processed properly, the natural fermentation process prevents mold and rot. John T. Schlebecker, “Whereby We Thrive: A History of American Farming, 1607-1972,”, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "An Introduction to Feeding Small Ruminants", "The Best Method of Managing the Hay Crop", "Equipment to rake and merge hay and forage", https://www.farmcollector.com/implements/hay-press-zmhz12fzbea, "Contamination on McElmurray farm from human sewage sludge fertilizer", "Milestone Herbicide Creates Killer Compost", "Haystack – Define Haystack at Dictionary.com", "The Beaverslide: Homegrown Haying Technology", "Haystack Fires (Spontaneous Combustion)", "Hazards Associated with Using Farm Tractors to Move Large Bales", "JAMA - Fatalities Associated With Large Round Hay Bales—Minnesota, 1994-1996", Hay Harvesting in the 1940s instructional films, Center for Digital Initiatives, University of Vermont Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hay&oldid=994822721, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from July 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 18:45. The highest quality hay will have few to no seeds, but some are inevitable. Hazards include the danger of having a poorly constructed stack collapse, causing either falls to people on the stack or injuries to people on the ground who are struck by falling bales. Loose hay was taken to an area designated for storage—usually a slightly raised area for drainage—and built into a hay stack. Depending on region, the term "hay rick" could refer to the machine for cutting hay, the hay stack or the wagon used to collect the hay. Thus quantity of hay is important for cattle, who can effectively digest hay of low quality if fed in sufficient amounts. When growth is at a maximum in the pasture or field, if judged correctly, it is cut. Large round hay bales present a particular danger to those who handle them, because they can weigh over 1,000 pounds (450 kg) and cannot be moved without special equipment. Hay is considered fully dry when it reaches 20% moisture. If the weather is too wet, the cut hay may spoil in the field before it can be baled. Hay baling began with the invention of the first hay press in about 1850. Hay of good quality will also remain in good condition for a long period of time if stored correctly in a dry environment. It is important to know when to use ser , estar or hay , when in English the verb “to be” would be used. When used this way in the present tense, the hay form of haber is used. However, turning the hay too often or too roughly can also cause drying leaf matter to fall off, reducing the nutrients available to animals. On this page you will find factsheets and information about allergic eye disease, hay fever and allergic rhinitis. On some farms the loose hay was stored in a barrack, shed, or barn, normally in such a way that it would compress down and cure. type of hay for horses – Grass Hay. “Hay balers are available that produce bales of many sizes and shapes. Natural fermentation preserves the … Loose stacks are built to prevent accumulation of moisture and promote drying, or curing. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/hay-animal-feed. Typical hay crops are timothy, alfalfa, and clover. Pigs may also be fed hay, but they do not digest it as efficiently as ruminants. Grasses grown and cut in the same way as for hay but left to dry for less time (approximately 30-40% moisture) Bales are wrapped straight after baling and compress to approximately two thirds of the original size. grass mowed or intended for mowing. [20], For animals that eat silage, a bale wrapper may be used to seal a round bale completely and trigger the fermentation process. Methods and the terminology to describe the steps of making hay have varied greatly throughout history, and many regional variations still exist today. ” if we’re referring to multiples of something:Hay unas llamas en mi salón If the temperature of a bale exceeds more than 140 °F (60 °C), it can combust. It can be harvested from tall grass by using a Sickle. Hay is usually dried in small piles or stacks in the field, but a rainy climate may dictate forced-air curing in the barn. A lucky break in the weather often moves the haymaking tasks (such as mowing, tedding, and baling) to the top priority on the farm's to-do list. The walls of houses or buildings can be insulated with bales of straw – a natural product that is relatively cheap to use!! Properly cured hay with 20 percent or less moisture may be stored for months without danger of spoilage. Large round bales, which typically weigh 300 to 400 kilograms (660–880 lb), are more moisture-resistant, and pack the hay more densely (especially at the center). However, it is also fed to smaller domesticated animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs. Drying can also be sped up by mechanized processes, such as use of a hay conditioner, or by use of chemicals sprayed onto the hay to speed evaporation of moisture, though these are more expensive techniques, not in general use except in areas where there is a combination of modern technology, high prices for hay, and too much rain for hay to dry properly.[9]. Hay is significantly cheaper to buy than haylage. They could be powered by steam engines by about 1882. Supplemental feed may be required for working animals with high energy requirements. A hayride, also known as a hayrack ride, is a traditional American and Canadian activity consisting of a recreational ride in a wagon or cart pulled by a tractor, horses or a truck, which has been loaded with hay or straw for comfortable seating. Combustion problems typically occur within five to seven days of baling. With the invention of agricultural machinery such as the tractor and the baler, most hay production became mechanized by the 1930s. I used to feed round bales to my horses. For other uses, see. Large square bales, which can weigh up to 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb), can be stacked and are easier to transport on trucks. They shed rain water better than either small or large square (rectangular) bales, if they're left outdoors without cover. In most cases, hay or pasture forage must make up 50% or more of the diet by weight. Later still, some farmers grew crops, like straight alfalfa (lucerne), for special-purpose hay such as that fed to dairy cattle. Hay production and harvest, commonly known as "making hay",[8] "haymaking", or "doing hay", involves a multiple step process: cutting, drying or "curing", raking, processing, and storing. Some animals are sensitive to particular fungi or molds that may grow on living plants. For other uses, see, "Haystack" and "Haystacks" redirect here. A bale cooler than 120 °F (49 °C) is in little danger, but bales between 120 and 140 °F (49 and 60 °C) need to be removed from a barn or structure and separated so that they can cool off. Quality hay has green color and sweet smell. The first balers produced rectangular bales small enough for a person to lift, usually between 70 and 100 pounds (32 and 45 kg) each. And, of course, straw is a very popular decoration for the front porch during the fall season. The original machines were of the vertical design similar to the one photographed by Greene Co. Job evaluation is a means of establishing relativities between jobs. It is frequently placed inside sheds, or stacked inside of a barn. Straw is used mainly for animal bedding. On the other hand, care must also be taken that hay is never exposed to any possible source of heat or flame, as dry hay and the dust it produces are highly flammable. Usually the material is cut in the field while still green and then either dried in the field or mechanically dried by forced hot air. [44] Some plants themselves may also be toxic to some animals. In some places, depending on geography, region, climate, and culture, hay is gathered loose and stacked without being baled first. [40] Heat is produced by the respiration process, which occurs until the moisture content of drying hay drops below 40%. Farmers who need to make large amounts of hay are likely to choose balers which produce much larger bales, maximizing the amount of hay which is protected from the elements. Verbs ser, estar, hay In Spanish, there are different ways to say that something exists or is located somewhere. Once hay is cut, dried and raked into windrows, it is usually gathered into bales or bundles, then hauled to a central location for storage. Mobile balers, machines which gather and bale hay in one process, were first developed around 1940. [24] This no doubt contributed to the pressure for baling in large bales to increasingly replace stacking, which was happening anyway as haymaking technology (like other farm technology) continued toward extensive mechanization with one-man operation of many tasks. Thus the biggest challenge and risk for farmers in producing hay crops is the weather, especially the weather of the particular few weeks when the plants are at the best age/maturity for hay. [14] One concern with hay grown on human sewage sludge is that the hay can take up heavy metals, which are then consumed by animals. Today tons of hay can be cut, conditioned, dried, raked, and baled by one person, as long as the right equipment is at hand (although that equipment is expensive). Texas A&M University - Department of Animal Science - What About Hay? However, this schedule is more for the convenience of humans, as most grazing animals on pasture naturally consume fodder in multiple feedings throughout the day. Up to the end of the 19th century, grass and legumes were not often grown together because crops were rotated. Hay rolls are enormous round bales of hay. Hay can be used as animal fodder when or where there is not enough pasture or rangeland on which to graze an animal, when grazing is not feasible due to weather (such as during the winter), or when lush pasture by itself would be too rich for the health of the animal. Large bales come in two types, round and square. A conditioner mower cuts the hay and at the same time allows it to dry its underside. After World War II, British farmers found that the demand outstripped supply for skilled farm laborers experienced in the thatching of haystacks. The large bales can also be stacked, which allows a given degree of exposed surface area to count for a larger volume of protected interior hay. [citation needed]. The time for cutting alfalfa hay is ideally done when plants reach maximum height and are producing flower buds or just beginning to bloom, cutting during or after full bloom results in lower nutritional value of the hay. It is full of nutrients. Haystacks are also sometimes called stooks, shocks, or ricks. The ratio of volume to surface area makes it possible for many dry-area farmers to leave large bales outside until they are consumed. Hay. The term "loose" means not pressed or baled, but it doesn't necessarily mean a light, fluffy lay of randomly oriented stems. Some are used for statistical purposes and others are set up by third party services. Hay may refer to the following: Hay Bale, the block of hay Wheat, the raw material used to breed cows, mooshrooms, sheep, and also known as "hay" There is also a risk that hay bales may be moldy, or contain decaying carcasses of small creatures that were accidentally killed by baling equipment and swept up into the bale, which can produce toxins such as botulinum toxin. Producers usually grow rye grass, oats, or alfalfa in large open fields and wait until the leaves have reached a specific maturity, generally just before their flowering stage. Hay refers to grass that has been cut while green, dried, and then made into square or round bales. In this method the forage crop is cut sooner, immediately baled, and wrapped in plastic to ferment like silage. Updates? Plastic tarpaulins are sometimes used to shed the rain, with a goal of reduced hay wastage, but the cost of the tarpaulins must be weighed against the cost of the hay spoilage percentage difference; it may not be worth the cost, or the plastic's environmental footprint. Hay is a crop that is grown specifically for the purpose of creating hay, while straw is a byproduct of different kinds of crops. All hay contains some dust and mould spores, and in a greater quantity than haylage because it is wrapped. For example, an endophytic fungus that sometimes grows on fescue can cause abortion in pregnant mares. [28] The words (haystack, haycock) are usually styled as solid compounds, but not always. The one you'll run into most often as a beginner is haber que, which means "to be necessary" when followed by an infinitive. For example, Pimelea, a native Australian plant, also known as flax weed, is highly toxic to cattle. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Unlike ruminants, horses digest food in small portions throughout the day, and can only use approximately 2.5% of their body weight in feed in any 24-hour period. Hay is grass that has been cut while it is still green and full of nutrients, but before it has gone to seed. Next, the cured hay is gathered up in some form (usually by some type of baling process) and placed for storage into a haystack or into a barn or shed to protect it from moisture and rot. Some stacks are arranged in such a manner that the hay itself "sheds" water when it falls. However, a silo is still a preferred method for making silage. Hay is the general name for a number of dried grasses, flowers and other plants used as off-season food for horses and other animals. There are many types of hay used to feed livestock. The wrap repels moisture, but leaves the ends of the bale exposed so that the hay itself can "breathe" and does not begin to ferment. If their type of feed is changed dramatically, or if they are fed moldy hay or hay containing toxic plants, they can become ill; colic is the leading cause of death in horses. The size and shape made it possible for people to pick bales up, stack them on a vehicle for transport to a storage area, then build a haystack by hand. Although straw is also used as fodder, particularly as a source of dietary fiber, it has lower nutritional value than hay. We also have a factsheets on allergic rhinitis in children. [citation needed]. During the drying period, which can take several days, the process is usually sped up by turning the cut hay over with a hay rake or spreading it out with a tedder. noun grass, clover, alfalfa, etc., cut and dried for use as forage. Straw also has a wide variety of uses, for everything from a compost pile to an energy source. It is the leaf and seed material in the hay that determines its quality, because they contain more of the nutrition value for the animal than the stems do. hay - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). One of the most significant differences in hay digestion is between ruminant animals, such as cattle and sheep; and nonruminant, hindgut fermentors, such as horses. Hay-on-Wye (Welsh: Y Gelli Gandryll or just Y Gelli), often abbreviated to just "Hay" (the community uses the short version) is a small market town and community in the historic county of Brecknockshire (Breconshire) in Wales, currently administered as part of the unitary authority of Powys. While balers for small bales are still manufactured, as well as loaders and stackers, there are some farms that still use equipment manufactured over 50 years ago, kept in good repair. See also straw. Even hay meadows with few species of plants can provide food for seed-eating birds and nesting habitat for ground-nesting birds. 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