[34] The threat from over-collection could be addressed by cultivation of some medicinal plants, or by a system of certification to make wild harvesting sustainable. [29] [33], In homes and temples, especially in Buddhist Asian countries, the fruit pulp is used to polish brass shrine statues and lamps, and copper, brass, and bronze utensils. 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Different species each require their own distinct conditions of cultivation. Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. The mushroom was probably used against whipworm. In its broadest sense, a tree is any plant with the general form of an elongated stem, or trunk, which supports the photosynthetic leaves or branches at some distance … Veneer grafting, shield (T or inverted T) budding, and air layering may be used to propagate desirable cultivars. Medicinal plants are a primary source of organic compounds, both for their medicinal and physiological effects, and for the industrial synthesis of a vast array of organic chemicals. Tamarind timber consists of hard, dark red heartwood and softer, yellowish sapwood. [28], A traditional food plant in Africa, tamarind has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare. Many hundreds of medicines are derived from plants, both traditional medicines used in herbalism and chemical substances purified from … Gloriosa superba. Tamarind turns, glues, and finishes well. [38] The presence of lupanone and lupeol,[39] catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and isorhamnetin[38] in the leaf extract could have contributed towards the diverse range of the medicinal activities. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree (family Fabaceae) bearing edible fruit that is indigenous to tropical Africa.The genus Tamarindus is monotypic, meaning that it contains only this species.. Soil type: … [2] For instance, daffodils (Narcissus) contain nine groups of alkaloids including galantamine, licensed for use against Alzheimer's disease. [77], Medicinal plants are often tough and fibrous, requiring some form of preparation to make them convenient to administer. [16], The fruit is an indehiscent legume, sometimes called a pod, 12 to 15 cm (4 1⁄2 to 6 in) in length, with a hard, brown shell. The book remained the authoritative reference on herbalism for over 1500 years, into the seventeenth century. [7] Angiosperms (flowering plants) were the original source of most plant medicines. Indian Medicinal Plants . The heartwood is able to take a high natural polish. Polyphenols include phytoestrogens (top and middle), mimics of animal estrogen (bottom). The unpurified bark is still used by some who can not afford to purchase more expensive antimalarial drugs. Medicines of different classes include atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine (all from nightshade),[53] the traditional medicine berberine (from plants such as Berberis and Mahonia),[b] caffeine (Coffea), cocaine (Coca), ephedrine (Ephedra), morphine (opium poppy), nicotine (tobacco),[c] reserpine (Rauvolfia serpentina), quinidine and quinine (Cinchona), vincamine (Vinca minor), and vincristine (Catharanthus roseus). The compounds found in plants are of many kinds, but most are in four major biochemical classes: alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols, and terpenes. General usage of the term "herb" differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs; in medicinal or spiritual use, any parts of the plant might be considered as "herbs", including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner … Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals. Agasi For the South American monkey, see, "Here's what you can cook with tender tamarind leaves", "Tamarind is the 'sour secret of Syrian cooking'", "Georgian Chicken in Pomegranate and Tamarind Sauce", "Asam or Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) on the Shores of Singapore", "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations", "Effects of dietary tamarind on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens", "Polyphenols from the extract and fraction of, "Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tamarind&oldid=996265184, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, SEA Hand Book-2009: Published by The Solvent Extractors' Association of India, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 14:23. [15][16] The Chinese pharmacopoeia, the Shennong Ben Cao Jing records plant medicines such as chaulmoogra for leprosy, ephedra, and hemp. The Indian Himalayan region alone supports … Fact Sheet No. [34], In hens, tamarind has been found to lower cholesterol in their serum, and in the yolks of the eggs they laid. [57], Deadly nightshade, Atropa belladonna, yields tropane alkaloids including atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Indonesia also has a similarly sour, tamarind-based soup dish called sayur asem. [75], The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), contains the monoterpene thymol, an antiseptic and antifungal. In the Islamic Golden Age, scholars translated many classical Greek texts including Dioscorides into Arabic, adding their own commentaries. Further, the high standards applied to conventional medicines do not always apply to plant medicines, and dose can vary widely depending on the growth conditions of plants: older plants may be much more toxic than young ones, for instance. [34], A medicinal plant is a plant that is used with the intention of maintaining health, to be administered for a specific condition, or both, whether in modern medicine or in traditional medicine. [75], Medicinal plants demand intensive management. The World Health Organization formulated a policy on traditional medicine in 1991, and since then has published guidelines for them, with a series of monographs on widely used herbal medicines. [35][38] The use of plant-based materials including herbal or natural health products with supposed health benefits, is increasing in developed countries. As a result, phytochemicals have frequently proven unsuitable as lead compounds in drug discovery. Description. 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