Pillow therefore refused to release Buckner’s division stationed at Fort Donelson. He urged Bragg to engage Buell there before he reached Louisville, but Bragg declined. Most of the river transports were currently transporting wounded men to Nashville and would not return in time to evacuate the command. The Confederate commander of the Fort was John Floyd, the second in … [34], The asperity of these notes was only superficial; Buckner greeted his old friend warmly when Grant arrived to accept the surrender. On May 9, Smith made Buckner his chief of staff. Beito, David T.; Beito, Linda Royster (Spring 2000). The small town was important for Union forces to maintain communication with Louisville if they decided to press southward to Bowling Green and Nashville. Gott, pp. Wallace's brigade, were ordered to seize a battery ("Redan Number 2") that had been plaguing their position. The night progressed with both sides fighting the cold weather. He served in this capacity until 1860, when the Guard was incorporated into the Kentucky State Guard's Second Regiment. Forrest's horsemen rode toward Nashville through the shallow, icy waters of Lick Creek, encountering no enemy and confirming that many more could have escaped by the same route, if Buckner had not posted guards to prevent any such attempts. View stories about Simon B Buckner at Fold3.com." Shortly after Buckner arrived at Smith's headquarters in Shreveport, Louisiana, Smith began requesting a promotion for him. Two regiments of cavalry and eight batteries of artillery supported the infantry divisions. [50] Buckner was briefly given command of Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood's division in February 1864, and on March 8, he was given command of the reestablished Department of East Tennessee. General A. In turn, Pillow passed the command to Buckner, who agreed to remain behind and surrender the army. It is reproduced from| the Daily Nashville Patriot , March 26, 1862, Vol. In 1895, he made an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. Senate. Facing the Confederates, from left to right, were Smith, Lew Wallace (who arrived on February 14), and McClernand. [citation needed], Nearly 1,000 soldiers on both sides had been killed, with about 3,000 wounded still on the field; some froze to death in the snowstorm, many Union soldiers having thrown away their blankets and coats. Bushrod Johnson and Simon Bolivar Buckner. After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Buckner became an instructor there. A lone regiment from Buckner's division—the 30th Tennessee—was designated to stay in the trenches and prevent a Federal pursuit. [47] Many of Bragg's subordinates, including Buckner, advocated that Bragg be relieved of command. He was appointed a brevet first lieutenant for gallantry at Churubusco and Contreras, but declined the honor in part because reports of his participation at Contreras were in error—he had been fighting in San Antonio at the time. Grant believed his position allowed him to forego a planned siege and successfully storm the fort. He participated in Braxton Bragg's failed invasion of Kentucky and near the end of the war became chief of staff to Edmund Kirby Smith in the Trans-Mississippi Department. [23], "Kentucky Governor Simon Bolivar Buckner", National Governors Association, Hamlin Garland Papers, Doheny Library, University of Southern California. Grant moved his army (later to become the Union's Army of the Tennessee[4]) 12 miles (19 km) overland to Fort Donelson, from February 11 to 13, and conducted several small probing attacks. Through the center of the Confederate line ran the marshy Indian Creek, this point defended primarily by artillery overlooking it on each side. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, … Most of Tennessee fell under Union control, as did all of Kentucky, although both were subject to invasion and periodic Confederate raiding. McPherson, p. 402: 12,000 to 13,000. [69], On June 10, 1885, Buckner married Delia Claiborne of Richmond, Virginia. These trenches, located on a commanding ridge and fronted by a dense abatis of cut trees and limbs stuck into the ground and pointing outward,[17] were backed up by artillery and manned by Buckner and his Bowling Green troops on the right (with his flank anchored on Hickman Creek), and Johnson/Pillow on the left (with his flank near the Cumberland River). His prediction proved correct, as negotiations between the federal government and Mormon leaders eased tensions between the two. It was in this attack that Union troops in the West first heard the famous, unnerving rebel yell. However, this would leave the Confederate forces at Fort Donelson heavily outnumbered. He did not believe it adhered to Johnston’s orders. In 1862, he accepted Ulysses S. Grant's demand for an "unconditional surrender" at the Battle of Fort Donelson. McClernand ultimately decided that he did not have enough men to stretch all the way to the river, so Grant decided to call on more troops. In the years following the war, Buckner became active in politics. "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted." [24] That August he was twice offered a commission as a brigadier general in the Union Army—the first from general in chief Winfield Scott, and the second from Secretary of War Simon Cameron following the personal order of President Abraham Lincoln—but he declined. "[40], Despite the successful morning attack, access to an open escape route, and to the amazement of Floyd and Buckner, Pillow ordered his men back to their trenches by 1:30 p.m. Buckner confronted Pillow, and Floyd intended to countermand the order, but Pillow argued that his men needed to regroup and resupply before evacuating the fort. [1] The audit showed that the state's longtime treasurer, James "Honest Dick" Tate, had been mismanaging and embezzling the state's money since 1872. Further, some supporters feared that voting for the National Democrat ticket would be a wasted vote and might even throw the election to Bryan. General Pillow was designated to lead a breakout attempt, evacuate the fort, and march to Nashville. [56], The site of the battle has been preserved by the National Park Service as Fort Donelson National Battlefield. That morning, Buckner sent a messenger to the Union Army requesting an armistice and a meeting of commissioners to work out surrender terms. On April 3, 1857, he was appointed adjutant general of Illinois by Governor William Henry Bissell. The company joined John E. Wool at Saltillo. [57] Smith had instead instructed Buckner to move all the troops to Houston, Texas. Grant's forces also controlled nearby rivers and railroads. [1] Later that year, he was chosen as a delegate to the state's constitutional convention. Gen. George A. On February 7, at a council of war held in the Covington Hotel at Bowling Green, he decided to abandon western Kentucky by withdrawing Beauregard from Columbus, evacuating Bowling Green, and moving his forces south of the Cumberland River at Nashville. [14], In 1861 Kentucky governor Beriah Magoffin appointed Buckner adjutant general, promoted him to major general, and charged him with revising the state's militia laws. At Fort Donelson, Tennessee, Buckner had become the first Confederate general of the war to surrender an army; at New Orleans, he became the last. [8], On the Union side, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Grant's superior as commander of the Department of the Missouri, was also apprehensive. Fort Donelson was fought from February 11 to February 16, 1862, in the Western Theatre of the American Civil War. As governor, Buckner became known for vetoing special interest legislation. The ticket was endorsed by several major newspapers including the Chicago Chronicle, Louisville Courier-Journal, Detroit Free Press, Richmond Times, and New Orleans Picayune. This caused a political conflict between Buckner and Governor Emanuel Willis Wilson of West Virginia, who complained that the raid was illegal. Grants Operationen gegen Fort Donelson dauerte von 11 bis 16 Februar 1862. . [33] In the meantime, McClernand's ammunition was running out, but his withdrawal was not yet a rout. Discover how General Ulysses Grant demanded unconditional surrender from Confederate General Simon Buckner. His reputation for rejecting special interest bills led the Kelley Axe Factory, the largest axe factory in the country at the time, to present him with a ceremonial "Veto Hatchet". The Union victory at Fort Donelson elated the North, and stunned the South. 219–28, 339; McDonough, pp. A week later, the Republicans chose William O. Bradley as their candidate. Buckner served on the court martial of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws after that subordinate of Longstreet's was charged with poor performance at Knoxville. Buckner joined the Aztec Club, and in April 1848 was a part of the successful expedition of Popocatépetl, a volcano southeast of Mexico City. [15] The garrison troops were commanded by Col. John W. Head and the cavalry by Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest. [5] Buckner's father was an iron worker, but found that Hart County did not have sufficient timber to fire his iron furnace. [52], Grant, who was courteous to Buckner following the surrender, offered to loan him money to see him through his impending imprisonment, but Buckner declined. [51] Buckner responded to Grant's demand: SIR:—The distribution of the forces under my command, incident to an unexpected change of commanders, and the overwhelming force under your command, compel me, notwithstanding the brilliant success of the Confederate arms yesterday, to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, Commanding General of the United States Army, 1865–1869, United States presidential election, 1868, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Fort_Donelson&oldid=983383602, Battles of the Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers of the American Civil War, Battles of the Western Theater of the American Civil War, Union victories of the American Civil War, Battles of the American Civil War in Tennessee, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Hamilton, James J. He participated in the Battle of Chapultepec, the Battle of Belen Gate, and the storming of Mexico City. "[34] This time Wallace sent a brigade, under Col. Charles Cruft, to aid McClernand. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow (Grant's opponent at his first battle at Belmont). Those who were interested in the "Battle of Shiloh" article of the July, i9!9» number of the Magazine, will find further interest in this article, especially with ref-erence to General Grant, etc. The following morning, Floyd and Pillow escaped with a small detachment of troops, relinquishing command to Brig. [83], Palmer and Buckner both had developed reputations as independent executives while serving as governors of their respective states. [42] Now a widower, Buckner continued to live in Louisville until 1877 when he and his daughter Lily returned to the family estate, Glen Lily, in Munfordville. Disgusted at the show of cowardice, a furious Nathan Bedford Forrest announced, "I did not come here to surrender my command." The inauguration ceremony was disrupted by the sound of cannon fire from an approaching Union division and the inaugural ball scheduled for that evening was canceled. Worth's division. Simon B. Buckner (Sr.), was born at Glen Lily, his family's estate near Munfordville, Kentucky. General Simon Bolivar Buckner Simon Bolivar Buckner, (* 1. Pillow won the argument. [25] After Confederate Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, violating the state's neutrality, Buckner accepted a commission as a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army on September 14, 1861, and was followed by many of the men he formerly commanded in the state militia. A brief skirmish ensued until orders from Buckner arrived to fall back within the entrenchments. [53], Buckner had difficulty traveling to the West, and it was early summer before he arrived. The matter was adjudicated in federal court, and Buckner was cleared of any connection to the raid. Gens. Grant was not bluffing. Crisp's house, Smith handed Buckner's communication to the commanding general. Die Einnahme Fort Donelsons öffnete den Cumberland als Einfallsroute der Union für eine Invasion des Südens und zwang die Konföderierten, Teile von Tennessee und Kentucky aufzugeben, darunter auch die Hauptstadt Nashville. Troops were moved behind the lines and the assault readied, but at the last minute a Union sharpshooter killed one of Pillow's aides. Buckner had hoped that Grant would offer generous terms because of their earlier friendship. The surrender was a personal humiliation for Buckner and a strategic defeat for the Confederacy, which lost more than 12,000 men, 48 artillery pieces, much of their equipment, and control of the Cumberland River, which led to the evacuation of Nashville. He never again sought public office and died of uremic poisoning on January 8, 1914. Nevin, p. 93; Gott, pp. Grant's answer was short and direct: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted." [73], Much of Buckner's time was spent trying to curb violence in the eastern part of the state. [5] In the days following the surrender at Fort Henry, Union troops cut the railroad lines south of the fort, restricting the Confederates' lateral mobility to move reinforcements into the area to defend against the larger Union forces. Cooling. Just over a year later, he resigned the post in protest over the academy's compulsory chapel attendance policy. Gentlemen, the position on the right must be retaken. Guns and wagons were frozen to the earth. [1][7], On July 1, 1840, Buckner enrolled at the United States Military Academy. He returned to his native state of Kentucky in 1857 and was appointed adjutant general by Governor Beriah Magoffin in 1861. Für die Nordstaaten war dieser Erfolg ein strategisch wichtiger Sieg. [48] Bragg retaliated by reducing Buckner to division command and abolishing the Department of East Tennessee. [87], Following the deaths of Stephen D. Lee and Alexander P. Stewart in 1908, Buckner became the last surviving Confederate soldier with the rank of lieutenant general. Simon Bolivar Buckner, commanding Fort Donelson, to General Ulysses S. Grant. Grant arrived on February 12 and established his headquarters near the left side of the front of the line, at the Widow Crisp's house. Camp near Fort Donelson February 16, 1862. 86–87; Gott, pp. [43] He arrived in Knoxville on May 11, 1863, and assumed command the following day. Historian Kendall Gott suggested that it would have been more prudent to stay as far downriver as possible, and use the fleet's longer-range guns to reduce the fort. The whole army is in danger! The enemy will have to be in a hurry if he gets ahead of me. They were delayed most of the day by a cavalry screen commanded by Nathan Bedford Forrest. Over 16,000 Confederate troops were now in Fort Donelson. When the Democrats again nominated William Jennings Bryan in the 1908 presidential election, Buckner openly supported Bryan's opponent, Republican William Howard Taft. Beauregard at Columbus, Kentucky, with 12,000 men, and William J. Hardee at Bowling Green, Kentucky, with 22,000 men. General Grants troops surrounded the Fort. This page was last edited on 13 October 2020, at 23:08. Grant began plans to resume his assault in the morning, although neglecting to close the escape route that Pillow had opened. [9] Like most former Confederate officers, he petitioned the United States Congress for the restoration of his civil rights as stipulated by the 14th Amendment. In the West things were going better for the Union army. Halleck had authorized Grant to capture Fort Henry, but now he felt that continuing to Fort Donelson was risky. "[39], True to his nature, Grant did not panic at the Confederate assault. They were delayed most of the day by a cavalry screen commanded by Nathan Bedford Forrest. The battle resulted in virtually all of Kentucky as well as much of Tennessee, including Nashville, falling under Union control. [9] He remained there until late April 1863, when he was ordered to take command of the Army of East Tennessee. It was considerably more formidable than Fort Henry. "[10] This self-imposed deadline was overly optimistic due to three factors: miserable road conditions on the twelve-mile march to Donelson, the need for troops to carry supplies away from the rising flood waters (by February 8, Fort Henry was completely submerged),[11] and the damage that had been sustained by Foote's Western Gunboat Flotilla in the artillery duel at Fort Henry. At this point, Gideon Pillow, and Simon Bolivar Buckner, seasoned army-men, stepped into the field to ease the burden off of an inept John B. Floyd, who had been holding the fort hitherto. The note first reached General Smith, who exclaimed, "No terms to the damned Rebels!" Altogether, the Union forces numbered nearly 25,000 men, although at the start of the battle, only 15,000 were available. Buckner assembled 61 companies to defend Kentucky's neutrality. [75] State auditor Fayette Hewitt was censured for neglecting the duty of his office, but was not implicated in Tate's theft or disappearance. Isham N. Haynie, colonel of the 48th Illinois, was senior in rank to Colonel Morrison. [14] Previously, he had attained only a brevet to these ranks. [37] The following day he was promoted to major general[38] and ordered to Chattanooga, Tennessee, to join Gen. Braxton Bragg's Army of Mississippi. Unwilling to violate these terms, he instructed a friend to withdraw his name from consideration if it was presented. The battle of Fort Donelson, which began on February 12, took place shortly after the surrender of Fort Henry, Tennessee, on February 6, 1862. Buckner vetoed 50 of these. Fort Donelson rose about 100 feet (30 m) on approximately 100 acres of dry ground above the Cumberland River, which allowed for plunging fire against attacking gunboats, an advantage Fort Henry did not enjoy. I propose to move immediately upon your works. [80] Buckner advocated for a gold standard, but the majority of Kentuckians advocated "Free Silver". Later in Buckner's term, feuds broke out in Harlan, Letcher, Perry, Knott, and Breathitt counties. [27], As soon as Foote arrived, Grant urged him to attack the fort's river batteries. At the conclusion of the war, American soldiers served as an army of occupation, which left them time for leisure activities. Buckner married Mary Jane Kingsbury on May 2, 1850, at her aunt's home in Old Lyme, Connecticut. Um einer Kriegsgefangenschaft zu entgehen, flüchteten jedoch die meisten Kommandeure, bis auf General Simon B. Buckner, der am 16. Location: Fort Donelson Instead, the responsibility went to Brig. Conditions set forth in Buckner's surrender were the following: The terms of Buckner's parole in Shreveport, Louisiana, on June 9, 1865, prevented his return to Kentucky for three years. After the events of the day, Buckner remained at Fort Donelson to command the Confederate right. Ulysses S. Grant, February 16, 1862 February 11-16, 1862 Estimated Casualties: 17,398 total (US 2,331; CS 15,067) After capturing Fort Henry on February 6, 1862, Brig. [82], At the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, the Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan for president and adopted a platform calling for the free coinage of silver. Buckner, not confident of his army's chances and not on good terms with Pillow, held back his supporting attack for over two hours, which gave Grant's men time to bring up reinforcements and reform their line. [63], Buckner had a keen interest in politics and friends had been urging him to run for governor since 1867, even while terms of his surrender confined him to Louisiana. Buckner, although protesting this distraction from the military mission, attended as well and gave stirring speeches to the local crowds about the Confederacy's commitment to the state of Kentucky. Buckner called for reinforcements from Bragg at Chattanooga, but Bragg was being threatened by forces under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans and could not spare any of his men. ", Animated history of the Battles of Forts Henry and Donelson, Newspaper coverage of the Battle of Fort Donelson, Battles for Forts Henry, Heiman & Donelson, American Civil War: Battle of Fort Donelson, Battle of Fort Donelson: Brief Summary of Location, Strategies, and Casualties, Siege of Fort Donelson, 12–16 February 1862, List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials, List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic, List of Confederate monuments and memorials, Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials. On February 15, with the fort surrounded, the Confederates, commanded by Brig. Johnston evacuated Nashville on February 23, surrendering this important industrial center to the Union and making it the first Confederate state capital to fall. [85], At 80 years of age, Buckner memorized five of Shakespeare's plays because cataracts threatened to blind him, but an operation saved his sight. Süden in Tennessee Pushing mit Hilfe von Flaggoffizier Andrew Footes Kanonenboote, Union Truppen unter Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant gefangen Fort Henry am 6. 194–202; Connelly. McClernand's right flank, which faced Pillow, had insufficient men to reach overflowing Lick Creek, so it was left unanchored. SIR: Yours of this date, proposing armistice and appointment of commissioners to settle terms of capitulation, is just received. Because of the proximity of the enemy lines and the active sharpshooters, the soldiers could not light campfires for warmth or cooking, and both sides were miserable that night, many having arrived without blankets or overcoats. Articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with no article parameter, Articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, American military personnel of the Mexican–American War, National Democratic Party (United States) politicians, People of Kentucky in the American Civil War, United States vice-presidential candidates, 1896, "Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896–1900", http://www.independent.org/publications/tir/article.asp?issueID=22&articleID=261, "Kentucky Governor Simon Bolivar Buckner", http://www.nga.org/cms/home/governors/past-governors-bios/page_kentucky/col2-content/main-content-list/title_buckner_simon.html, "Simon Bolivar Buckner: A Skillful and Judicious General", https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Simon_Bolivar_Buckner?oldid=5247049, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, "All acts of hostility on the part of both armies are to cease from this date. 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